高二英语第五单元

时间:2021-04-09 08:38       来源: 未知
高二英语第五单元

科目 英语

年级 高二

文件 high2 unit5.doc

标题 Mainly Revision

章节 第五单元

关键词

内容    

一、教学目的和要求

1.单词和词组

二会:L17 Charlie Chaplain Comedy intend

L18 moustache swing contribution

L19 California Pianist

L20 Syd Switzerland bri高二英语第五单元ng up

三会:L17 direct director particular actress act

L18 Lifetime silent add…to uncertain be uncertain about bury honor stage

L19 Search in(one's) search for Wooden mouthful piano play the piano excite manager

四会:L17 Line

L18 Set off after a (short) while appearance

L19 set(νt.) storm as if in a burry have … on

L20 film(νt.) pick out

2.日常交际英语

What do you plan to do next?

We intend to… next January

I hope it will be very successful.

It will certainly be very…

What are your plans for the future?

3.语法:复习限制性和非限制性定语从句

 

二、重点与难点分析

Lesson 17

1.Some of us do not know much about the theatre.我们中有一些人还不太懂得戏剧。

1)句中的动词短语know much about意为“对…了解很多”,&127;其中much可用a little,little ,all , something , nothing 等词替换,&127;以表示不同程度上的了解。know about或know of表示间接地“了解”,“听说”,“知道”有关情况。例如:

① I happened to know about him, but I didn't know him .&127;我碰巧知道他的有关情况, 可我不认识他。

②She knows all about Europe.她对欧洲的一切很熟悉。

2)句中的“theatre”不作“剧院”解,而作“戏剧”或“戏剧艺术”解,&127;是不可数名词,通常它的前面要用定冠词“the”,例如:

The director gave us a lecture on the theatre.那位导演给我们作过一次有关戏剧艺术的报告。

2.Could you explain exactly what you do? 你能准确地解释一下你干的工作吗?

explain意为“解释”,“说明”名词形式是 explanation

explain不能接双宾语,用作单宾语动词。应该说explain sth. to sb或explain to sb. sth.或what, that, how, why等引导的宾语从句。不能说explain sb. sth.例如:

①Please explain the rule to the students.请把这条规则给学生们解释一下。

②I explained to him how the machine was used.我向他们解释这台机器怎么用。

③She explained that she could not come.她解释说她不能来了。

3.Then for a period of several weeks we practise doing the play.随后的几个星期,我们就排演了这部剧。

1)Practise sth.或practise doing sth.动词practise后面不能接不定式。例如:

①He is practising the piano now.他正在练习弹钢琴。

②You must practise speaking English more.你必须多练习说英语。

2)period表示“一段时间”,一般指不具体的一段时间,如for a long / short period,或for a period of several weeks/days如表示一段具体的时间,通常不用period,如可以说for three weeks,而不说for a period of three weeks.例如:

I'm going to stay here for a period of several days.我打算在这儿停留几天。

period表示“时代”、“时期”。如:

The first part of the Great Wall was built during the Spring and Autumn period.长城最早一部分建于春秋时期。

△ period表示“一节课”。如:

That's all for this period.这节课就上到这里为止。

4.The timing is very important, not only for the movements but also for the lines of the dialogue.

时间的安排非常重要,这不仅对于剧情的变化,而且对于对白中的台词都是如此。

句中的not only…but also…不仅…而且是连词词组,边接两个相同句子成分。

a.连接主语(句中的谓语动词单复数按靠近原则)

①Not only you but also he has been to Guangzhou.不仅你还有他也去过广州。

②Not only he but also I am a doctor.不仅他而且我也是医生。

b.连接谓语动词

Mary can not only sing but also dance.玛丽不仅会唱歌,而且能跳舞。

c.连接宾语

I saw not only Mary but also Betty.我不仅见到了玛丽,还见到了贝蒂。

d.连接状语

We study English not only in class but also after school.我们不仅在课上学英语,而 且放学后也学英语。

e.连接表语

Mr. Li is not only my teacher but also my good friend .&127;李先生不但是我的老师,而且是我的好朋友。

f.连接补足语

He was elected not only monitor but also League branch secretary .&127;他不仅当选为班长,还当选为团支部书记。

△ not only … but also还可以连接两个分句,但第一个分句的主谓语要倒装。

Not only did the teachers take part in the English evening party, but also they sang at the party.老师们不仅参加了英语晚会,而且在晚会上唱了歌。

5.I've chosen the main actors and we intend to put it on next January.

我已经选好了主要演员,打算在明年一月上演。

句中的动词intend vt意为“打算”“存心”“有…的意图”后面跟不定式作宾语,即intend to do sth.

①What do you intend to do today?你今天打算干什么?

I intend to see a film.我打算去看电影。

②I have made a mistake, though I didn't intend to.我犯了一个错误,尽管我不是存心要犯的。

Lesson 18

1.Charlin Chaplain ,who died in 1977, is considered one of the greatest and funniest actors in the history of the cinema.查理卓别林于1977年逝世,他被认为是电影史上最伟大,最滑稽的演员之一。

1)consider sb/sth(to be)…意为“把…认为是…”这个复合结构的被动式是be considered (to be)…意思是“被认为是…”“to be”常被省略。例如:

①We consider the experiment (to be)a success.我们认为这次试验是成功的。

②The experiment is considered a success.(被动式)

2)the history of the cinema电影艺术史。

句中的cinema不作“电影院”讲,而是“电影艺术”

The cinema is an important form of art.电影是一种很重要的艺术形式。

2.As a result , Chaplin got his first film art in the States.结果,&127;卓别林就在美 国得到他的第一个电影角色。

句中的“part”意为“角色”,是可数名数。例如:

She had the leading part in the play.她在这部剧中扮演主要角色。

the states=the United States美国

3.Even his way of walking down the street and turning a corner could be recognized as his own.甚至他在街上走路和在拐角处转弯的那种姿态,&127;都可以认为是他独有的。

1)recognize vt认出,看出,常用于recognize as 短语中,意为“认出是”或“承认是”。

Tom is recognized as the best basketball player in the school.

人们都承认汤姆是学校里最好的篮球运动员。

2)as his own=as his own way .own是不定代词,作介词as的宾语,&127;意为“自己的东西”。也可以用作形容词,作定语,例如:

I like to sleep in my own room.我喜欢睡在自己的房间里。

4.After a short while he started directing films himself.没有多久,&127;卓别林就开始自己导演影片了。

after a while意为“不久以后”,“没过多久”,其中while是名词,意为“一段时间,一会儿”

After a while, the train stopped at a station.

5.Chaplin's earliest films were silent ,because the equipment for adding sound to films had not yet been developed.卓别林最早期的电影是无声电影,因为在那时还没有研制出给电影配音的设备 句中的add…to…意为“增加”、“加进去”,“把…加入到…”例如:①Two added to three makes five.二+三等于五。

②My mother added some more salt to the soup and it tasted much better.

我妈妈往汤里多加了一点盐,汤的味道就好多了。

add up to意为“加起来(达到)”

The cost added up to 200 Yuan .费用达到200元。

6.The development of films with sound became a problem for Chaplin , as he was uncertain about making films with dialogue .&127;有声电影的研制对卓别林来说倒成了问题,因为他对制作有声电影并没有把握。

be uncertain about/of 对…无把握

We are uncertain about the future.我们对未来没有把握。

We are uncertain whether to go (or not).我们对是否要去拿不定主意。

7.Two of his greatest films ,“City Lights”and “Modern Times”were of this kind. ニ的两部最伟大的影片“城市之光”和“摩登时代”就是这一类(&127;没有对白但配有音乐)的影片。介词短语of kind意为“…种类的”,“属于…一类的”。&127;在句中作表语或定语。例如:①I don't like people of that kind.我不喜欢那种人。

②These machines look the same ,but they are of different kinds

这些机器看起来一样,但是种类不同。

8.Chaplin's later films, however, were not well received.但是,&127;卓别林晚期的电影并不太受欢迎。be well received意为“很受欢迎”,常用来表示书刊等出版物以及电影、戏剧等受到的反应。

①The magazine“Readers”is very well received in China.《读者》杂志在中国很受欢迎。

②My speech was very well received.我的讲话很受欢迎。

9.Before he died, he was honored in &127;a number of ways for his contributions to the film industry.在他逝世之前,他由于在电影事业方面的贡献而获得了很多荣誉。1)honor vt.意为“尊敬”be honored for 意为“因…而受到尊敬”。

①Children should honor their parents.孩子应该尊敬父母。

②Miss. Wang was honored for her excellent teaching .王老师由于出色的教学工作而受到表彰尊敬

The students should show great honor to their teachers .&127;学生应该尊敬老师。

短语in honor of 意为“为了尊敬/纪念”

There is a party tonight in honor of the new chairman.

为向新任主席表示敬意,今晚将举行晚会。

2)contribution n.奉献、贡献,后跟介词to,表示对…的贡献。例如:

The invention of the typewriter is a great contribution to printing.ご蜃只的发明是对印刷业的一大贡献。

Lesson 19

1.The film was set in California in the middle of the nineteenth century.

这部影片以19世纪中叶的加利福尼亚为背景。

句中的短语be set in意为“以…为背景”,例如

The novel is set in the 19th century Paris .&127;这部小说是以十九世纪的巴黎为背景的。

2.Peope said gold could easily be picked up by washing sand from the river in a pan of water.

据说,用一个水盒淘洗河里的砂子就可以很容易地把金子筛选出来。

短语动词pick up意为“拾到”、“找到”、“捡起”、“收集到”

①He picked up a wallet on his way to school.他在上学的路上捡到一个钱包。

②Mark has picked up a large number of Chinese stamps.马克已经收集到大量的中国邮票。

3.This was known as “panning for gold”.这就是人们所熟知的“淘金”。

be known as意为“被称为”“大家公认”

①She was well known as an excellent dancer.大家都知道她是一名优秀的舞蹈演员。

②Shanghai is known as the base of China's industry.上海被认为是中国的工业基地。

4.So far, they have been unlucky in their search for gold and have no money at all.サ秸馐蔽止,他们寻找金子一直运气不好,而他们身上一个钱也没有了。

in search for/of 搜寻,寻找

①Some birds fly south in search of winter sun .有些鸟南飞去寻找冬天的温暖。

②Mr. Green came in his search for her.格林先生来找他。

5.Chaplin and his friend are caught on the edge of a mountain in a snow storm in a small wooden house.在一场大风雪中,&127;卓别林和他的朋友被困在山边的一个小木屋里。

句中的be caught意为“陷入困境”“进退两难”。

①My mother was caught in a heavy rain on her way home.

我妈妈在回家的路上遇上了大雨。

②The car was caught between two trucks.小汽车被卡在两辆货车之间

 

三、同步测试

Ⅰ.单项选择

1.Charlie chaplain is considered one of the greatest actors in the world.

A. to be B. being C. as

2.He met my brother, from he got the news of my marriage.

A. whom B. who C. which D. whose

3. These high buildings the beauty of the city of Beijing.

A. add to B. add in C. add up D. add up to

4.The young lady took care of these children they were her own.

A. even if B. as if C. though D. however

5.His parents died when he was only five months old and he was &127; &127; &127;by a friend of his father's

A. set off B. fixed C. brought up D. acted

6.The policemen on a rainy night. They wanted to catch the murderer as soon as possible.

A. set off B. set up C. brought up D. intended

7.I became very nervous when it was my turn to go onto the stage , because I was afraid I might forget my .

A. name B. director C. actress D. lines

8.The police traveled a whole day their search &127; &127; &127; the lost girl.

A. in ,in B. at , for C. In , form D. in ,for

9.-Why are you such a hurry?

-Because an important meeting will start a short while.

A. in ,after B. in , in C. Running ,in D. with ,for

10. If you want to speak English well, you must practise &127; &127; &127; &127; it every day.

A. speaking B. so far C. from then on D. after that

11.This is the best film I have seenl

A. just now B. so far C. from then on D. after that

12. This is one of the problems that badly .

A. needs solving B. need solving C. needs to be solved &127; D. need to solve

13.The director had my sister an important part in a play.

A. child B. women C. girls D. sports

14.I happen to him, but I'm sorry to say I don't &127; &127; &127; &127;him.I've never seen him.

A. know , know B. know about, know

C. know, know about D. know about, know about

15.I didn't quite understand that maths problem ,so I had Li Ying explain once again.

A. to me it B. me it C. me to it D. it to me

16. of my father's workshop has been made manager of the company.

A. Head , the B. The head,/ C. Head ,/ D. The head ,the

17.She is a famous film strand me greasy enjoyed her in that film.

A. action B. act C. acting D. actress

18.He all his pockets and failed to find his purse.

A. searched B. searched for C. looked D. looked for

19.Tom is tall and thin , makes him different from any other student in his class.

A. as B. which C. that D. it

20.He wanted to have a new suit at the tailor's shop.

A. to make B. make C. making D. made

 

Ⅱ、阅读理解

A

Tokyo: Three snakes, whose poison could kill a person in ten minutes, are guarding a blue star sapphire(蓝宝石&127;)worth nearly six hundred dollars at Japanese exhibition of jewels sent from an Indian museum.

“Normally it would be forbidden to let these poisonous snakes guard exhibition objects. but it's different this time because the jewels are being exhibited at a hotel," a police official said.

Exhibition officials said that a person bitten(咬)by one of these snakes would need at least 80ml of an anti-poison medicine to be saved. Medicine was being kept read at a nearby hospital.

Star sapphires and other valuable jewels worth a total of one million dollars are on show behind glass. Hundreds of visitors came to see the special blue star sapphire and were surprised when they saw the sixty-centimeter long brown guards.

1.Using smacks at exhibitions of valuable objects is

A. quite normal B. never allowed C. often necessary D. usually forbidden

2.The jewels were being shown in

A. an Indian hotel B. an Indian museum C. a Japanese hotel D. a Japanese museum

3.Why were the snakes and jewels at the same exhibition?

A. They were both special things from India.

B. The snakes were there to keep the jewels safe.

C. The organizers wanted to do something unusual

D. People liked to visit an exhibition guarded by snakes.

4.Many visitors came to the exhibition because

A. the snakes were on show

B. so many jewels were being exhibited

C. exhibition officials said it was special

D. they were interested in seeing a famous jewel

B

Frank Smithson woke up and leaned over to turn off alarm. clock.“Oh no!” he thought to himself“Another day at that office:a boss who shouts at me all the time.” As Frank went downstairs his eyes fell on a large brown envelope by the door. He was overjoyed when opened it and read the letter inside.“Bigwigs Football pools(足球赌博公司)would like to congratulate you. You have won half a million pounds.”

Frank suddenly came to life. The cigarette(香烟)fell from his lips as he let out a shout that could be heard halfway down the street.

At 11:30 Frank arrived at work.“Please explain why you're so late.”his boss said“Go and jump in the lake,”replied Frank.“I've just come into a little money so this is good bye. Find yourself someone else to shout at.”

That evening Frank was smoking a very expensive Havana cigar(雪茄)when a knock was heard on the door . He rushed to the door . Outside were two men, neatly dressed in grey suits. “Mr. Smithson,”one of them said ,“We're from Bigwoods Pools, I'm afraid there's been a terrible mistake…”

1.What do we know about Frank?

A. He was a lazy man.

B. He was a lucky person.

C. He didn't make a lot of money.

D. He didn't get on well with his boss.

2.When he heard the knock at the door. Frank probably thought .

A. someone had come to make an apology

B. someone had come to give him the money

C. his friends had come to ask about the football pools

D. his friends had come to congratulate him on his luck

3.On hearing “…there's been a terrible mistake…”Frank was most likely to be

A. disappointed B. worried C. nervous D. curious

四、参考答案

Ⅰ.单项选择

1.D 2.A 3.A 4.B 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.D 9.B 10.A 11.B 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.D 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.B 20.D

Ⅱ.阅读理解

A.1.D 2.C 3.B 4.D

B.1.D 2.B 3.A

 

科目 英语

年级 高二

文件 high2 unit4.4.doc

标题 Mainly Revision

章节 第四单元

关键词 内容     

一、教学建议:

1.教学目的与方式

当我们捧着一期新到手的报纸并惬意地享受它所带给我们的众多新闻与信息时,我们是否曾为它如何诞生的而感兴趣呢?文本意在告诉读者一些有关报刊行业的常识性知识,了解报纸作为人们日常生活中一种不可替代的消费品从采访、初稿、编辑、审定直到最后排版校样的一系列工作中,工作人员所付出辛勤劳动,言简意赅,生动形象。对扩大学生的知识面,了解实际生活都有好处。同时,对中国日报(CHINA DAILY)作为较为详尽的介绍,还将有助于提高学生们的英语学习兴趣。

在教学中通过使用整体教学、分层次训练的方式,使学生系统深入的掌握本单元教学内容,能够用英语进行日常约会,掌握-ing形式作主语和宾语的用法。达到活学活用的目的,实现英语教学中的素质教育。

能力目标:

1.对话(Lesson 13)

a.朗读:语音语调准确,情感适度;

b.归纳:学习怎样用英语进行日常约会;

Making an appointment(日常约会)

Will you be / Are you free this evening? Yes,I'll be free.

Are you going to see the new film? Yes,I'd like to.

Let's go together then,shall we? Ok.

What time shall we meet? I suggest 7 o'clock.

Where is the best place to meet? What about meeting outside the theatre?

Sounds good idea. See you. See you then.

c.运用:套用句型模拟对话;

d.创造:自编对话并表演;

e.写作:复述并将对话改写成短文。

2.课文(Lesson14、15)

a.理解课文大意,能回答有关问题(Wb.P89 Exercise 1);

b.归纳大意,能复述课文;

c.将课文改写成100词左右的短文;

d.以简图的形式对报纸的出版过程进行详细的说明。

2.教学重点

单词:

journalist, event, cover, fix, face-to-face, interview, photographer, editor, save, headline, check, develop, deliver, rail, daily, cost, everyday.

词组:

get down to work, fix a time for, work on, type……into computer, hand sth. to sb., be popular with, as well, care for, take a photograph (of), look up.

通过设置丰富的语言环境,向学生呈现重点词汇。可通过问答,句型转换,补全句子等方法。

例1:What's on this weekend at the People's Theatre?

"The Red Roses" are giving a performance.

例2:If you want to get a job in the company, you may have a face-to-face interview with the manager.

例3:As a teacher of English, she is liked by her students.

As a teacher of English, she ____ ____ ____ her students.(is popular with)

例4:Final examination is coming, and you should begin to prepare it.

Final examination is coming, and you should ____ ____ ____ ____ it.(get down to preparing)

例5:It is said that the performances are very good.

People ____ ____ ____ ____ are very good.

The performances ____ ____ ____ ____ very good.(say that the performances);(are said to be)

以下句子供教学参考:

1、The most important event of this year is that Macao will return to China in December.

今年最重大的事件是十二月份澳门将回归中国。

2、Which events have you entered for?

你参加了几项比赛?

3、They sent the best reporters to cover the conference.

他们派出了最好的记者去报道大会的消息。

4、Cover the table with a cloth.

在桌子上铺上台布。

5、By sunset we had covered thirty miles.

到日落的时候,我们已经走了三十英里。

6、His research covers a wide field.

他的研究工作涉及的范围很广。

7、Is that word covered in the dictionary?

这部词典里有那个词吗?

8、They have fixed the date for the wedding.

他们已经定了婚礼日期。

9、My watch has stopped.It needs fixing.

我的表停了,需要修理。

10.Her eyes were fixed on the gun.

她紧盯那只枪。

11.He is fixing his thought on what he is doing.

他正在全神贯注地工作。

12.He had a shelf fixed to the wall.

他找人把架子安在了墙上。

13.It will save time if we drive the car instead of walking.

我们如果以车代步的话,可以节省时间。

14.It will save me 50p if I buy the smaller box.

我买小箱子可以节省五十便士。

15.He is saving to buy the computer.

为了买计算机,他在节省开支。

16.The doctor saved the child's life.

医生救了那个孩子的命。

17.The man saved the child from drowning.

那个人救了那个孩子使他免于溺水而死。

18.We are saving for a new car.

我们现在正在储蓄,准备买一量新车。

19.We delivered your order to your door.

我们送货上门。

20.Did you deliver my message to my father?

你把我的信息传给我父亲了吗?

21.He delivered his speech effectively.

他演讲说得非常有力。

22.We must help to deliver them from misery and suffering.

我们必须帮助他们脱离苦难。

23.It's time to get down to some business.

现在该认真干些事情了。

24.Let's fix a time for meeting.

让我们约个时间见面。

25.He sat up far into the night, working on the report.

他熬夜写报告。

26.We had a face-to-face argument with them.

我们同他们进行了一次面对面的辩论。

27.They are standing there, face to face.

他们面对面地站在那里。

28.Please type the article into the computer.

请把这篇文章输入电脑。

29.Please hand the book on the desk to me.

请把桌子上的书递给我。

30.Hand in your examination papers now, please.

请把试卷交上来。

31.The teacher handed out the books at the beginning of the lesson.

老师刚上课的时候,把书发给了学生。

32.His new book is very popular with readers.

他的新书很受读者欢迎。

33.I'm going to London and my sister's coming as well.

我要去伦敦,我妹妹也随我一起去。

34.I realy care for the students in my class.

我真的喜欢我班上的学生。

35.She cared for her father in his dying years.

他在父亲生命垂危的数年里一直照料他。

36.Would you care for some tea?

要不要来点茶。

37.He wants to take a photograph of the Great Hall of the People.

他想拍一张人民大会堂的照片。

38.Look up the time of the next train in the timetable.

查一下火车时刻表中下一趟车的时间。

3.教学重点:动名词作主语,宾语的用法。

动名词作主语:

1)Seeing is believing.

眼见为实。

2)Playing football is his favourite sport.

踢足球是他最喜欢的运动。

句型1:

It is +名词(或形容词)+动名词

No use

It is no good doing that.

A waste of time

So nice / interesting / foolish……

It's a waste of time waiting here.

在这里等是浪费时间。

It'sso nice talking to you.

很高兴和你谈话。

句型2:

There is no + 动名词

如:There is no joking about such matter.这事开不得玩笑。

动名词作宾语:

只能跟动名词作宾语的动词

Group I: admit, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy,

excuse, explain, finish, forgive, imagine, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise,

prevent,risk, suggest, understand……

GroupII: need, want, require

GroupIII: permit, allow, forbid, require

*Group II: need, want, require 三个词后面跟的动名词必须是主动形式。同时,其动名词不能随意扩大。例如:

(1)This house needs cleaning.这房间该打扫一下。

(2)That car wants repairing.那车需要修理了。(但不能说:I want resting.我需要休息。)

*Group III: 第三组词跟人作宾语后,必须用不定式作补语。例如:

This room won't allow smoking.在这间屋里不准吸烟。

We do not allow anybody to smoke here.这里不许吸烟。

例句:

(1)We enjoy dancing like you do.我们和你一样也喜欢跳舞。

(2)Would you mind opening the window?打开窗子你介意吗?

一些特殊动词后面接不定式和动名词,其含义不同。

(1)

remember +动名词 表示动作已经完成

forget +不定式 表示动作尚未发生

I remember locking the door. 我记得把门锁上了。

You must remember to lock the door.你一定要记住锁好门。

I'll never forget seeing the Alps for the first time.我永远不会忘记第一次看见阿尔卑斯山的景。

I'm afraid he will forget to write to me.恐怕他会忘记给我写信。

(2)

+动名词 表示停止做某事

+不定式 表示停下来,开始做某事

The man stopped working and began to have a rest.那人停下手里的活,开始休息。

The man who was talking stopped to work.正在说话的那人停下来开始工作。

(3)

+动名词 表示学习某事/物

+不定式 表示学会了某事/物

Having learned to skate, she began to learn swimming.

学会了滑冰,她又开始学游泳。

(4)

+动名词 表示继续做同一件事

+不定式 表示继续做另一件事(动作不变内容/方式变)

He went on reading the story.他继续读那篇故事。

He went on to read another story.他继续读另一篇故事。

(5)

+动名词 表示实验

+不定式 表示尽量:企图

I tried cooking the meat in wine.我试着用酒煮肉。

Try to get here early.尽量早点到这里。

(6)

+动名词 表示害怕做某事的后果(不具体)

+不定式 表示害怕而不敢去做(具体)

He is afraid of falling.他害怕会摔倒。

He was afraid to go there alone, so he remained.他不敢独自去,于是就留下了。

(7)

+动名词 表示意味着

+不定式 表示打算,意欲

This will mean giving you some trouble.这意味着给你添麻烦。

I don't mean to trouble you.我并没想给你添麻烦。

(8)

prefer一词较特殊,其结构如下:

Prefer A to B

Prefer to do A rather than do B

Prefer doing A to doing B.

(=would rather do A than do B)

例句:

1)I prefer to stay in a house rather than stay in a hotel.我宁愿住在一所房子里也不愿住宾馆。

3)She prefers listening to music to playing the piano.她宁愿听音乐也不愿去弹钢琴。

(9)

+动名词 表示情不自禁

+不定式 表示不能帮忙(某事)

Hearing the news, she can't help laughing.

听到那消息,她情不自禁地笑了。

At that time I was very busy,so I can't help(to) repair your bike.

那时我太忙,所以没法帮你修理自行车。

2)后面用不定式和动名词,其含义不变的动词有:begin / start / continue

They began working / to work soon after they arrived.

他们刚一到就开始工作。

3)like, hate, love, prefer 等动词既可以接不定式,又可接动名词,意思相同。单表示一个特定的具体动作时,接不定式。

Children like / love to see cartoons.=Children like / love seeing cartoons.

孩子们喜欢看动画片。

--Can I give you a Life?

--No,thanks. I prefer to walk back, for it is not far.

你要搭车吗?

不,谢谢。我喜欢走着回去,不远。

二、学法指导:

1、谈谈怎样做好完形填空

完形填空(Cloze Test)是外语学习中一种综合练习或测试形式。这种题目提供一篇短文,把文中的若干词语抽出,留出空白,要求学生根据全文的意思,把正确的词语填入空白处。完形填空是一项考查学生综合运用所学词汇,语法知识能力和阅读理解能力的重要题型。同学们普遍认为,这种题很难。但是,如果你掌握了做完形填空的基本规律,正确运用已掌握的词汇,语法知识,完全可以取得较为满意的成绩。

1)完形填空的解题要点

(1)从整体入手

首先通读全文,抓住文章中人和事物的特点及情节发展的大致方向,把握住文章的中心思想。如果在阅读中遇到难点,暂且把它放下,继续读下去,直至读完全文,掌握文章大意。

(2)注意逻辑上、形式上一致

注意全文与局部在逻辑上、形式上一致,局部意思符合整体意思,上下文在形式上一致。

(3)采用推理法或排除法

解题时要采用推理法,根据已知信息推未知信息;还要采用排除法,根据已掌握的知识,排除错误的答案,选择正确的答案。

2)完形填空的解题步骤

(1)通读全文,掌握大意

首先要把全文通读一遍,了解大意。在阅读过程中,可以借助短文下面的备选答案来帮助理解。如果对文章的主要意思还不清楚,宁可再看一两遍,也不要急于填空。切忌看一句填一句。

(2)逐句阅读,选出答案

在通读全文,了解大意的基础上,再逐句阅读,选出答案。在选择答案时,可以采用“排除法”。要特别注意文章的第一个句子。一般来说,第一句都不留空,是完整的句子。借助于这个句子可以大体了解到文章的体裁内容和文体特点,以便作到心中有数。

(3)复读全文,检查答案

全部填完后,把短文重读一遍,要重意义和语言知识两方面进行检查。发现错误,加以纠正。

2、本单元句型

(1)What's on this weekend?

周末上演什么?

What's on +时间/地点,表示“在……时间/地点上演什么”,其中on是副词,作表语,意为“上演”,“演出”。

What's on tonight?

今晚上演什么?

What's on at Guanglu Cinema?

光陆电影院上演什么电影?

(2)They are said to be very good.

据他们说都很棒。

本句用了“sb. is / was said +不定式”的句型。它还可以转化为下面两个句型:

i It is / was said + that 从句

ii They / people say +that 从句

所以本句还可以改成:

It is said that they are very good.

People say that they are very good.

[注]可用于上述句型的动词除say外,还有report, hope, believe, suppose等。

(3)There is no more time left for adding new stories ……

没有时间来增加新的报道了。

There is (no) …… left for sth. / doing sth. 的意思是“还留下(没留下)……来干某事。”

There is some time left for singing a song.

还剩下一点时间来唱支歌。

There is a little money left for buying the books.

还剩下一点钱来买书。

There is no space left for putting the writing-desk.

没有放写字台的地方了。

(4)China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut the costs of making the newspaper.

《中国日报》刊登大量广告这有助于降低报纸的生产成本。

1.China Daily 是专有名词需要大写。

2.plenty of只用于肯定句,后面可接可数名词和不可数名词。

You have plenty of time to do the work.

你有足够的时间来做这工作。

There are plenty of men out of work.

有大量的人失业。

3.Which 引导的是非限制性定语从句。

My new car, which I paid several thousand pounds for, is not running well.

我花几千英镑买的新车运行状况不好。

4.cut 这里是“削减”的意思。

His salary has been cut by ten per cent.

他的薪水减少了百分之十。

3、疑难解析

例1:The public library and the school stand across the street.

A.face-to-face B.faced-to-faced

C.face to face D.A or C

选择:C

解析:

face-to-face带连字符的合成词在句子中作定语,而face to face不带连字符则在句中作状语。例如:After a face-to-face interview, he got the job.在一次面试后他得到了那份工作。In the carriage they sat face to face.在火车车厢里他们面对面地坐着。类似的结构:heart-to-heart贴心的back-to-back背靠背的hand-in-hand手拉手的shoulder-to-shoulder肩并肩的。

例2:He also learned to messages the 8th Route Army.

A.deliver; for B.delivering; to

C.deliver; from D.delivers; to

选择:A

解析:

deliver: take (letters, parcels,goods, message, etc)to the place or people they addressed to 递送;传送

短语:deliver + 名/代 + to

We delivered your order to your door.

我们送货上门。

另外,deliver: to say; read aloud 发言;发表

deliver + 名/代

After he came into power, the President delivered a wonderful speech.

总统上台之后,发表了一篇精彩的演说。

三、评价:

同步练习:

完成对话:

Jim: It's very kind of you to come and see me off.

Bob:My pleasure. 1

Jim: Thank you, and please say good-bye to all my friends in the college for me.

Bob:Ok.You can leave that to me.

Jim: 2 How can I thank you enough?

Bob:You're welcome. 3 I hope you'll come again.

Jim: Yes.I'll try my best to come back again and to see my friends here.

Bob: 4 .

Jim: 2:45, they say.

Bob: 5 .We'd better say good-bye now.

Jim: See you.

A.There is only a quarter to go

B.When will you get home?

C.I wish you had a good time during your stay here.

D.You have given me so much help during my stay here.

E.What time is your flight taking off?

F.I wish you a pleasant journey home.

G.I've been happy go do what I could.

单项选择:

6."Can I have a look at your new car?""Certainly, ."

A.please look B.it's to dear

C.it's really beautiful D.go ahead

7.A wonderful concert will be at the theatre across our school.

A.acted B.shown

C.played D.given

8.How many pages have you so far?Can you return the book to me tomorrow?

A.looked B.seen

C.covered D.turned

9.--What reason do you have for doing so?

--

A.I was told so B.I was told to

C.I hoped to D.I'd like to

10.Jim is often seen to be made behind after school.

A.to stay B.stay

C.staying D.stayed

11.It's time for us to to some work. We ought to do something every day.

A.get on B.get up

C.get down D.get in

12.When I write something, I usually go to the library to the necessary facts.

A.look up B.look out

C.look down D.look on

13.China is very with many college students.

A.satisfied B.popular

C.pleased D.agreed

14.No date has been fixed their visit china.

A.for; to to

C.for; / D.at; for

15.The professor you want to see is an important experiment now.

A.moving on B.working out

C.keeping on D.working on

语法专练:

16.It's no use with him

A.quarrelling B.to quarrel

C.of quarrelling D.being quarreled

17.My brother regretted a lecture given by professor Wu.

A.missing B.to miss

C.improvement D.improved

18.This sentence needs .

A.improve B.improving

C.improvement D.improved

19.It's a good habit to practise English aloud in the morning.

A.to read B.reading

C.in reading D.to be reading

20.She suggested for an outing next Sunday.

A.go B.to go

C.going D.gone

21.To catch up with my classmates means even harder from now on.

A.study B.to study

C.studying D.studied

22. is easier than doing.

A.To talk B.Talk

C.Talking D.Having talked

23.The student doesn't mind when he speaks English.

A.being laughed B.being laughed at

C.to be laughed D.laughing at

24.---What are you going to do this afternoon?

---I'm thinking of to visit my aunt.

A.go B.going

C.having gone D.me going

25. a reply, he decided to write again.

A.Not receiving B.Not having received

C.Receiving not D.having not received

完形填空:

When I was walking down the street the other day, I happened to notice a small brown wallet lying on the ground. I picked it up and opened it to see if I could 26 the owner's name.There was nothing inside it 27 some change and an old photograph-a picture of a 28 and a young girl about twelve years old, who 29 the woman's daughter. I put the photograph back and 30 the wallet to the police station, 31 I handed it to the desk sergeant. 32 I left, the sergeant took 33 my name and address in case the owner might want to write and thank me.

That evening I went to have 34 with my aunt and uncle. They also invited a young woman 35 there would be 36 people at the table. Her face was familiar. I was quite sure that we 37 before, but I could not 38 where I had seen her. While talking, however, the young woman 39 mention that she had lost her wallet that afternoon. 40 I realized where I had seen her. She was the young girl 41 the photograph, although she was now 42 .She was very 43 , of course, when I was able to 44 her wallet to her. Then I explained that I had 45 her from the photograph I 46 in the wallet. My uncle 47 going to the police station immediately to claim the 48 .As the police sergeant handed it over, he said that 49 was amazing that I 50 the wallet, but also the person who had lost it.

26.A.find out B.find C.discover D.look for

27.A.beside B.besides C.except D.except for

28.A.man B.woman C.boy D.young man

29.A.looked B.liked C.looked like D.as if

30.A.brought B.sent C.returned D.took

31.A.When B.which C.where D.then

32.A.Before B.When C.After D.While

33.A.up B.down C.with D.for

34.A.meal B.supper C.dinner D.tea

35.A.now that B.since C.as D.so that

36.A.four B.five C.three D.six

37.A.didn't meet B.had met C.had not met D.met

38.A.know B.remember C.see D.recognize

39.A.had to B.was to C.did D.happened to

40.A.All at once B.At once C.Right now D.Right away

41.A.for B.in C.to D.on

42.A.too old B.more older C.much older D.much elder

43.A.surprising B.excited C.exciting D.surprised

44.A.tell B.describe C.ask D.say

45.A.remembered B.known C.recognized D.seen

46.A.had found B.found C.saw D.had

47.A.insisted B.suggested C.insisted on D.advise

48.A.picture B.photograph C.woman D.wallet

49.A.it B.she C.that D.this

50.A.did find B.did not only find C.not only found D.had not only found

阅读理解:

NANJING(Xinhua)-Suicides(自杀)are on the increase in China, but anyone who feels like taking that route and who lives in Nanjing can now dial 632977 to talk about it.

China's first-ever-suicide-prevention centre opened on July 1st in the capital of East China's Jiangsu Province.

Professor Zhai Zhutao, head of the center, said about 10 per cent of the population suffer from psychological(心里上的)troubles of various kinds, and that suicides are on the rise.

The center offers telephone, mail(信件)and face-to-face advising services while spreading knowledge on how to prevent suicides among people and families.

CHINA DAILY

Friday, July 5, 1991

51.When did the centre open?

A.On July 1 every year

B.Three days before the news was published

C.On Children's Day

D.On the first Monday of July in 1991

52.What do we learn about the centre?

A.It sends telephones to those who try to suicide

B.It helps to stop suicide

C.It writes for those who have suicided

D.It often telephones those who live in Nanjing, advising them to prevent suicide

53.According to the news, .

A.a marked increase in suicide has happened in China.

B.Professor Zhai Zhutao founded the first suicide-prevention centre.

C.You'd better report to the centre on anyone's suicide.

D.Only Jiangsu Province has such a centre.

54.The centre's services will certainly work because .

A.it spreads knowledge of life-saving

B.one tenth of the people may suicide

C.many people are suffering

D.there must be some psychological explanation for suicides

单词拼写:

55.My father is on China Daily. He is a j .

56.Professor Wang went to Paris to attend an i conference.

57.I'm going to have a photo taken by the p .

58.Did you buy his l book published last month?

59.have you got your films d ?

60.The newly-opened Children's Palace is p with a lot of children.

短文改错:

When you visit London, one of the first thing you will see 61._____

is Big Ben, the famous clock which can be heard of all over 62._____

the world on the BBC.If the House of Parliament have not been 63._____

burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have built. 64._____

It is not only of a huge size, but is extremely accurate(准确的)as well. 65._____

Workers from Greenwich Observatory have the clock check twice a 66._____

day. On the BBC you can hear the clock when it is stroke because 67._____

microphones connected to the clock tower. Big Ben has rarely gone 68._____

wrong. Once , it fails to give the correct time. A painter who 69._____

had been working on the tower hang a pot of paint on one of 70._____

the hands and slowed it down.

参考答案:

1-5 FDGEA 6-10 DDCBA 11-15 CABAD 16-20 AABBC 21-25 CCBBB

26-30 ACBCD 31-35 CABCD 36-40 ABBDA 41-45 BCDBC 46-50 ACDAD

51-54 DBAC 55-60 journalist, international, photographer, latest, developed, propular.

61.thing-things 62.去掉of 63.have-had 64.have-have been

65.√ 66.check-checked 67.Stroke-striking 68.microphones-microphones are

69.fails-failed 70.hang-hung

科目 英语

年级 高二

文件 high2 unit6.doc

标题 Mainly Revision

章节 第六单元

关键词

内容    

一、教学目的和要求:

⒈ 单词和词组:

shape ring(n.) collection bank material hide hand out L.22四会

here and there look round

envelope sooner or later pick up pack packs of L.23

cheaply

cock shame coin L.21三会

silver penny(pl. pence) mine(n.) possibly whenever L.22

trade whatever afford L.23

seashell L.22二会

⒉ 日常交际用语

复习第一至第五单元出现过的日常交际用语。

⒊ 语法:

复习第一至第五单元学习过的语法项目。

 

二、重点和难点:

L.21

⒈I’m afraid I don’t have it any more. 恐怕我再也没有了。

句子的not any more (no more) 意为“不再”,“再也不”。

在谈数量或程度时,可用no more;说时间时则用not any more。例如:

There is no more bread. 没有面包了。(指数量)

He is no more genius than I am. 他和我都不是天才。(指难度)

He doesn’t live here any more. 他不住在这儿了。(指时间)

Let him go alone. He isn’t a child any more. 让他一个人去吧。他不再是小孩子了。

⒉What a shame ! (what a pity!) 太遗憾了!真不巧!多可惜啊!

这是两个日常交际用语中表示遗憾的句子。shame可作“可惋惜之事”解,无复数形式,前面常用不定冠词a。例如:

You didn’t go to her birthday party. What a shame ! 真遗憾,你没有去参加她的生日聚会。

She can’t join us in the travel. What s shame ! /What a pity!

她不能参加我的旅行了,真是太遗憾了!

在本课中还出现了这样一个句子:It’s a pity I didn’t think of it earlier. 很遗憾我没有早点想起这件事。

这是由形式主语it引导的表示遗憾的用语,其句型结构是:It is a pity+that clause,由that引导的主语从句表示遗憾的具体内容,而that这一连词常可省略。例如:

She can’t join us in the travel. What a pity! 也可以这样表示:

It’s a pity (that) she can’t join us in the travel. 很遗憾她不能参加我们的旅行了。

 

L.22

⒈Later, another type of coin was used , with holes in it, and these were used for the next 2,000 years, that is, from 221 BC until 1916. 后来,使用一种中间有孔的硬币,这种硬币以后用了2,000年,即从公元前221年开始到1916年为止。

a)句中的with holes in it是with的一个复合结构,在句中作定语,其结构是with+n.+介词短语,这时它相当一个定语从句(…which has holes in it),对先行词coin作补充说明。例如:

I don’t know how to operate this new type of machine, with lots of meters on it. 我不知道如何操纵这种新型机器,上面有许多仪表。

He used to live with his grandparents in a large house, with trees round it. 他曾和他的祖父母住在一座大房子里,四周皆是树木。

另外,with的这种复合结构也可以用作方式状语。例如:

We sat on the ground, with our backs to the wall. 我们坐在地上,面靠着墙。

The wife came down the stairs, with her son in her arms. 妻子从楼上下来,怀中抱着她的儿子。

b)句中的that is,作插入语用,对上文进行补充说明。这一插入语的前后通常用逗号同句子的其他部分分开。意思是“这就是说”,“也就是”。例如:

Bruce lived in China for about two years, that is, from 1995 to 1997. 布鲁斯在中国住居约两年,即从1995年到1997年。

She visited Shenzhen three years ago, that is, in 1996. 她三年前去过深圳,也就是说是在1996年的时候。

⒉coins may be of different sizes, weights, shapes, and of different metals.

(=coins may be different in size, weight and shape, and they may be made of different metals.)硬币可能大小、轻重、形状不同,铸造的金属可能不一样。

句中的of所引起的短语of different sizes, weights, shapes以及of different metals都用作表语,表示主语coins的特征。例如:

The method is of great importance (=The method is very important. )这方法很重要。

Your advice is of great help. (=your advice is helpful.) 你的忠告很有帮助。

The professor’s suggestions are of much value. (=The professor’s suggestions are very valuable.) 教授的建议是很宝贵的。

但在口语中,of有时可以省去,特别是在of短语之后还有修辞语的时候。例如:

The girls are almost (of) the same height. 这些姑娘们差不多一般高。

⒊The earliest coins in the west were made of gold mixed with silver. 西方最早的硬币是用金和银的合金制成的。

句中的mixed with silver是过去分词短词,作定语用,修辞gold,作定词用的过去时分词短词通常置于它所修饰的名词之后,大体相当于一个定语从句。例如:

The building built last year (which was built last year ) is now a hospital. 去年建的大楼现在是家医院。

The young girl dressed in red (who is dressed in red) is a dancer.

穿红衣服的那位年轻的姑娘是舞蹈演员。

需要注意的是:当单个的过去分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰的名词前面。例如:

Who is your most respected teacher ? Mr Li is。谁是你的最尊敬的老师?李先生。

The broken window has been repaired. 那扇坏窗子已经修好了。

⒋The new Chinese panda coin is made of 99.99% gold. 新的中国熊猫硬币的含金量为99.99%。

a)句中的be made of短语意为“由……制造”。用这一结构时,主要是指成品中可以看出原材料,其制作过程中仅发生了物理变化。例如:

The desks and chairs are made of wood. 课桌和椅子是用木头制造的。

There wine bottles are made of glass. 这些酒瓶是用玻璃做的。

但有些制品制成后,已看不出原材料,其制作过程发生了化学变化,这时则由短语be made from表示。例如:

Gas is made from coal. 煤气由煤制成。

This kind of wine is made from grape. 这种酒是葡萄做的。

b)99.99%读作ninety─nine, point ninety─nine percent, 拼写时percent也可以分开写成per cent.

⒌It contained 54, 951 coins dating from the years 260-275 A.D. 那一堆硬币共有54,951枚,制币时间是公元260年至275年之间。

a)句中的it指上文提到的the collection of coins found in England in 1978.

b)dating from短语在句中作定语,相当于一个定语从句……which dated from the years…,修饰先行词coins, date在这里是不及物动词,意思是“起始”,“兴起于……”,常与介词from一起构成短语date from, 作“始于……”时期(=come into being or come from a centain time.)。例如:

This castle dates from the 14th century. 这座城堡建于14世纪。

The Great Wall dates from the third century BC. 长城始建于公元前三世纪。

date作名词时,意思为“日期”,“日子”。例如:

Today’s date is the 23rd of October. 今天是10月23日。

Has the date of the meeting been fixed? 开会的日期定下来了吗?

⒍It is known that thousands of Chinese worked in the gold mines in the late 19th century. 众所周知,在十九世纪末成千上万的中国工人在金矿里干活。

a)It is known that…是一固定句型,其中it是形式主语,that引导的句子是真正的主语类似这样的结构还有:It is reported that…, it is announced that…, It is said that…。例如:

It is reported that the old building burned down last week dated from the early 187os.据报道,上周烧毁的那座古代的建筑物始建于十九世纪初。

It is said that she started to learn to swim in her late fifties.据说她在她近六十岁时开始学游泳的。

b)句中的late为形容词,表示“后期”、“末期”,而early则表示“早期”、“初期”。例如在上面的二个句子中分别出现了the early 187os十九世纪初和in her late fifties在她近六十岁时。

⒎It is possible that one of them kept a kind of bank where the workers could keep their money safe.其中有一个人可能开了一个钱庄,工人们可以把钱安全地存放在那里。

a)这是一个由形成主语it引导的句子,其真正的主语是that引导的句子,其结构是It It is+adj.+that clause. 例如:

It is possible that it will rain tomorrow.明天可能会下雨。

It is important that every student follows the teacher’s advice. 每个学生都应听从老师的忠告,这一点很重要。

另外,要注意possible, probable和likely的区别:possible表示客观上潜在的可能性;probable表示有几分根据的推测;而likely则表示有充分根据的推测。

b)句中的keep a bank意思是“开办银行”。这里keep是及物动词,作“经营”、“养活”、“管理”解,后跟名词作宾语。例如:

My father keeps a shop in a small village. 我父亲在一个小村子里开了家商店。

The old woman has a young girl to keep her house. 这位老妇人雇佣了一位年轻的姑娘替她管家。

He has to work very hard to keep the family. 为了养家糊口他得努力工作。

c)本句中的keep the money safe这一结构中,keep也是及物动词,但意为“保持(某种状况)”,其后跟的是带形容词的复合结构:keep+n.+adj.,例如:

We should keep our classroom clean and tidy. 我们应该保持教室的整洁。

Put the food into the refrigerator to keep it cool, or it will go bad. 把这些食物放在冰箱里以便冷藏,否则会变坏的。

L.23

⒈At the beginning, collect as many stamps as you can. 首先,尽可能多地收集邮票。

a)at the beginning意为“首先”、“起初”类似的短语还有in the beginning, at first 其反义词组是in the end, at last或副词finally.

b)as… as one can意为“尽力”、“尽……可能”,与as…as possible意思相同。例如:

Please start as early as you can (=Please start as early as possible.)请尽早出发。

We should work as hard as we can.(=we should work as hard as possible.)我们应尽力工作。

除了在as…as之间加副词外,也可加“形容词+名词”词组。例如:

You’d better make as many friends as you can while at school. 你最好是在学校广交朋友。

Try to make as few mistakes as you can (possible) 尽量少犯错误。

⒉The ones which you decide not to keep can be traded with other people. 那些你决定不保留的邮票可以同其他人交换。

句中的trade为动词,意思为“做生意”、“交易”、“互易”。与介词with连用,构成短语动词trade with sb.,作“与(某人)作买卖”、“同(某人)交换”解。例如:

He refused to trade with that company again. 他再一次地拒绝了与那家公司做生意。

Stamp collectors often trade stamps with each other. 集邮者经常相互交换邮票。

如果说表达“用……同……进行交换”时,则用短语trade for (exchange sth. for sth.),例如:

I traded my watch for a bike. 我用我的手表换了一辆自行车。

Would you like to trade this book for a pen? 你愿意用一本书换一支钢笔吗?

⒊Sooner or later you’ll decide that you want to collect a certain kind of stamp. 迟早你会决定收集一种邮票。

句中的固定词sooner or later作“迟早”、“总有一天”解,与at some time, some day同义。例如:

Sooner or later she was going to awake. 她迟早会觉醒的。

The boy will, sooner or later, tell his father all about the matter. 这个男孩迟早会把这事的全部经过告诉他父亲的。

⒋Go to stamp sales and buy whatever you can afford. 到邮票销售点去,把你能够买得起的邮票买下来。

a)句中的stamp sales (the place where stamps are sold)意思是邮票销售部,邮票发售点。sale的复数形式常用来作定语,构成合成词。例如:

a sales talk销售谈判;salesgirl /salesman / saleswoman售货员,推销员。

b)句中的whatever是连接代词,相当于anything that,作“凡是……的”、“所……的东西”,引导名词性从句。本句中的whatever you can afford就是作及物动词buy的宾词。例如:

I will do whatever you wish. 我将为你做任何事情。

You can eat whatever you like. 你愿意吃什么就吃什么。

此外,whatever还可以引导主语从句。例如:

Whatever I have is yours. 我的东西都是你的。

whatever还可以用来引导状语从句,表示让步,作“无论什么”解。

Keep calm, whatever happens. 不论出什么事都要保持镇定。

Whatever you do, do your best. 无论你干什么,都要尽最大努力。

c)句中的afford一词是动词,作“花得起”、“买得起”解,表示“有经济条件做某事”这一词常和can这类词连用。但同时也表示“为(某目的)有足够的钱、时间、地方等。”例如:

The house is too expensive. We can’t afford it. 这座房子太贵了,我们买不起。

They walked here because they couldn’t afford a taxi. 他们因坐不起出租车而是步行来这里的。

I’d like to go on holiday but I can’t afford the time. 我想去度假但抽不出时间来。

另外,afford一词还有“给予某物”、“供给某物”的意思。例如:

The tree afforded us welcome shade. 这棵大树下好乘凉。

Television affords pleasure to people. 电视给人们带来乐趣。

三、同步测试:

I. 选择最佳答案:

⒈Your name is John. The phone rings so you pick it up and say:

A. John speaking B. hello

C. Can I help you ? D. John here. Who do you want to speak to?

⒉You answer the phone. Someone wants to speak to your father, who is at home . You say.

A. Please don’t go away B. Hold on, please.

C. Wait a minute. D. Please wait here.

⒊When you answer the phone, you find that the caller has dialed the wrong number. He says that he is very sorry. You reply:

A. Goodbye. B. Not at all

C. Please don’t do it again. D. Please be more careful

⒋She gathered a lot of coins from different countries.选择适当的答案替换划线部分:

A. bought B. received C. accepted D. collected

⒌The man shouted in a _______ voice and the girl was very _______.

A. frightening, frightening B. frightening, frightened

C. frightened, frightened D. frightened, frightening

⒍Hibernation is more than sleep.选择适当的答案替换划线部分:

A. much more B. not only C. less than D. fast

⒎The watch is ______ at over a thousand yuan, so I can’t _____ it.

A. value, waste B. worth, spend C. price, cost D. valued, afford

⒏The two girls are ______.

A. the same height and age B. of the same height and age

C. the same high and age D. of the same high and age

⒐Please choose _______ you like.

A. whenever B. whatever C. anything which D. it

⒑The park near my house is getting dirtier and dirtier. Rubbish can be seen ______.

A. here and there B. far and wide

C. near and far D all where.

⒒It is ______ for you to do such a thing in public.

A. shameful B. shame C. a shame D. shamed

⒓I’ll go with you ______ you are ready.

A. whatever B. whenever C. wherever D. whoever

⒔This is one of the questions ______ at the meeting last week.

A. being discussed B. discussing C. to be discussed D. discussed

⒕________ plastics, the machine is light in weight.

A. Made of B. Marking of C. To made of D. Having made of

⒖The question ______ now is ______ great impartance.

A. is discussed, of B. discussed, in

C. to be discussed, about D. being discussed, of

⒗All the students found _______ to work out the difficult physics problem.

A. it is impossible B. it impossible C. that impossible D. that is impossible

⒘The students were kept busy ______ the coming exem.

A. preparing with B. preparing C. for preparing D. prepared

⒙______ wants to go to the concert must sign here.

A. Who B. Those who C. Anyone D.Whoever

⒚下面的句子中只有一句无语法错误,请找出来。

A. He is such good a teacher that I have ever seen.

B. He is so a good teacher that we all love him.

C. He is so excellent a student that he is known to all in our school.

D. We all love him because he is such good a teacher.

⒛Would you please ______ from smoking while the lecture is in progress?

A. avoid B. stop C. cease D. keep yourself

II.阅读下面短文,并在空白处填入一个语法及意义都正确的词,每空一词:

In Singapore, people from all walks of life (1) close to one (2) . For (3) , near where I live people do a variety of jobs, ranging from hawkers (小贩) (4) bank managers . Mr Hock is a hawker, who has to visit the market every morning to buy food for his stall. This quite unusual among Singaporeans as buying from the market is (5) done by women. Next (6) to us, your immediate neighbour, Mr Kim, works during the day (7) a clerk in the city, but when evening comes, unlike other men. (8) go home to eat and relax by “putting their legs up”, he has a second job on the stock exchange. (9) it is day-time in New York, dealers are obliged to sit up all night to follow the monements of the market. And yet the local trader and the financier live (10) 100 meties of each other.

III.改错

One watches TV often feels that whatever

happened in the film could well happen to them . Jane

had been enjoying a spy film in which a young girl had followed and

murdered. Now she was walking to the station, feel a little

frigtened. She took the train back to the center of the city where

there were a lot of people, so she felt much safe. She

thought of nothing until she found a man nearby staring at him. Feeling

very uncomfortable, she got out of the train and went to the bus

step. After getting off, she heard footsleps behind her but dare not turn

round before she felt a hand on her shoulder and heard a pleasantly voice:

“I’d apologize whether I frightened you. I’m your new neighbour.

I thought I recognized you in the train, but I was not so sure.” 1.________

2.________

3.________

4.________

5.________

6.________

7.________

8.________

9.________

10._______

 

参考答案:

I.1─5DBCDB 6─10BDBBA 11─15CBDAD 16─20BBDCD

II.⒈live;⒉another;⒊example;⒋to;⒌always;⒍door;⒎as;⒏who;⒐when;

⒑about

III.⒈One后加who;⒉them him / himself;⒊had后加been;⒋feel feeling;⒌ ;

⒍safe safer;⒎him her;⒏dare dared;⒐pleasantly pleasant;⒑whether if

 

科目 英语

年级 高二

文件 high2 unit7.doc

标题 Mainly Revision

章节 第七单元

关键词

内容    

一.教学目的和要求

一.单词和词组:

四会:

  L.25 generally speaking notice differently

  L.26 settle all the year round be famous for deal a great deal of make use of

  L.27 race skin tool

  L.28 clear up from time to time

三会:

  L.25 tap eastern

  L.26 official official language settle struggle struggle against freeze freezing average natural natural gas exploit ordinary refer refer to

  L.27 tent baggage block fur basic settlement

二会:

  L.25 Dean accent

  L.26 Ottawa minus C=centigrade

  L.27 hunt Inuit seal

2.日常交际用语:

  A lot of people can’t tell the difference between an American accent and a Canadian accent.

  Are there many differences?

  What do you mean by…?I’m sorry, I don’t follow you.

  Do you use American or British spelling?

  American spellings are used more and more in Canada now.

3.语法

  学习主语和谓语的一致的用法

 

二.重点与难点分析

  Lesson 25

  1. A lot of people can’t tell the difference between an American accent and a Canadian accent .许多人分不清美国口音与加拿大口音的区别。

  1)tell vt辨别;分辨,判断(常与can, could及be able to连用)

  例如:

  ①It’t difficult to tell her exact age.很难说得出她确切年龄。

  ②I can’t tell one from the other .我分不清这两者区别。

  △ tell the difference(between A and B)说出(A和B之间的)区别,分清(A和B)

    The teacher asked me to tell the difference in meaning between “over ”and “above”.

  老师要我说出“over”和“above”两个词在词义上的区别。

  2)accent意为“口音,音调”。还可以作“重音”解。

  ①Our maths teacher spoke with a strong Zhejiang accent .我们数学老师说话带有浓重的浙江口音。

  ②Our English teacher has a bit more American accent . 我们英语老师有较多的美国口音。

  ③The word “woman” has its accent on the first syllable . “woman”这个词,重音在第一个音节。

 

  2.I thought you were from the States. 我还以为你是美国人呢。

  此句表示过去认为,而现在说话时已不这么认为了,因此,动词要用过去式。

  例如:Hello, Li Lei, I didn’t know you were here, too .

  你好,李雷,我不知道你也在这儿。(表示见到李雷之前不知道。)

 

  3.We fill our cars with “gas”, which is American, but we turn on the “tap”, which is British English.

  我们给汽车加油(“gas”),这是美国英语,我们开水龙头(“tap”),这是英国英语。

  美国英语中,汽油是 “gas”,英国英语是 “Petrol”;美国英语中,水龙头是 “faucet”,英国英语是 “tap”。

  下面列举几组常用词来说明美国英语和英国英语在词汇方面的不同──同样的意思却用不同的词汇。

  美国英语    英国英语    词义

  eraser     rubber     橡皮

  fall      autumn     秋天

  mail      post      邮件

  movie     film      电影

  sick      ill      疾病

  store     shop      商店

  vacation    holiday    假期

 

  4.Gererally speaking, newspapers follow the American way, but conference reports and school books use British spelling.

  一般来说,报纸采用美国英语的拼法,而会议报告则用英国英语的拼法。

  1)generally speaking是-ing短语,在句中作插入语,对全句作解释。类似的插入语如下:

  strictly speaking  严格地说  personally speaking  就个人而言

  frankly speaking  坦率地说  broadly speaking  广义地说

  exactly speaking  准确地说

  2)句中follow意为“遵循”“听从”“沿着”例如:

  ①We must follow his advice. 我们要听从他的意见。

  ②Follow the road until you come to a river .沿着这条路走到河边。

 

  5. you mean it looks strange! I’ll tell you something that does sound strange .

  你的意思是说,这看起来很奇怪!我倒可以告诉你一件听起来的确很奇怪的事情。

  1)句中的look和sound都是连系动词,连系动词后接形容词作表语一起构成谓语。常见的连系动词有:be, feel, fall, seem, keep, appear, taste, smell, become, grow, get, go, turn, sound, look等等

  例如:

  ①That sounds strange. 听起来很奇怪。

  ②The silk feels smooth .丝绸摸上去很光滑。

  ③The leaves have turned green .叶子变绿了。

  ④It’s getting dark .Let’s go home.天快黑了,咱们回家吧。

  ⑤The potatoes went bad in the soil .土壤在地里变得坏了。

  ⑥The apples from this tree taste delicious .这棵树上的苹果很好吃。

  2)句中does用来加强语气。助动词do (does, did )常用在肯定句或祈使句中,表示强调。例如:

  ①I do hope you’ll stay to supper .我真希望你留下来吃晚饭。

  ②Please do come next time. 下次务必要来呀!

 

Lesson 26

  1.Canada is the second largest country in the world .加拿大是世界上第二个最大的国家。

  形容词的最高级形式与序数词second/third连用,表示“居第二/第三位”,如本句的“第二个最大的国家”(the second largest country)例如:

  ①The yellow River is the second longest river in china .黄河是中国第二条最长的河流。

  ②Li Lei is the tallest boy in our class. Wang Gang is the second tallest .Who is the third tallest?

  李雷是我们班最高的男孩。其次是王钢,第三是谁呢?

  2.It is larger than the USA and reaches nearly a quarter of the way round the earth.

  它比美国还要大,它的国土的长度几乎达到地球周长的四分之一。

  △句中的不及物动词reach意为“延伸”(extend)例如:

  ①The woods reach as far as the river .这片树林一直延伸到河边。

  ②The park reaches to the foot of the mountain.这座公园一直延伸到山脚下。

  △当reach意为“到达”或“伸手碰到”,是及物动词。例如:

  ①Can you reach those books on the shelf? 你够得着架了上的那些书吗?

  ②I reached Beijing about half past six .我大约6点半到达北京。

 

  3.The country covers six of the world’s 24 time areas .加拿大的国土跨过全世界24个时区中的6个。

  句中的及物动词cover本意是“覆盖”、“遮盖”,本句中的cover意为“占有(多少面积)”cover还可以作“采访解,请看下列例句中cover的不同词义:

  ①Please cover the table with a table cloth .请将桌布盖在桌子上。

  ②We covered twelve miles yesterday.昨天我们走了12英里的路程。

  ③The city covered ten square miles . 这座城市占地10平方英里。

  ④His studies covered a wide field.他的研究涉及的范围很广。

  ⑤He was sent to cover the Science Conference in Beijing .他被派出采访北京的科学大会了。

 

  4.For two centuries English and French settlers struggle against each other to control the country .

  为了控制这个国家,来自英法两国的定居者相互争斗长达二个世纪。

  struggle against意为“和……斗争”,后接斗争的对象。struggle for意为“为……斗争”,后接斗争的目标。

  ①They struggled against difficulties .他们与困难搏斗.

  ②The poor had to struggle for a living. 穷人为了生存而斗争.

 

  5. Today, one province of Canada is French-speaking .现在加拿大有一个省说法语.

   English-speaking (说英语的),Chinese-speaking(说汉语的)Russian-speaking (说俄语的)

  例如

  ①Australia is an English-speaking country .澳大利亚是一个讲英语的国家。

  ②Many countries in South America are spanish-speaking .南美洲很多国家都说两班牙语。

 

  6.As in China, the weather is different from area to area.同中国的情况一样,加拿大的气候也随着地区的不同而不同。

  As in china相当于一个省略了的方式状语从句:As it is the case in China …其中as是连词,意为“正如”,“如像”。例如:

  ①As in your country, we grow wheat in the north, and rice in the south.

  正如你们国家情况一样,我们在北方种小麦,在南方种大米。

  ②As in the last experiment, he got the same result again this time .

  正如上次的实验一样,他这次又得到了同样的结果。

 

  7.The temperatures can fall to-60℃, that is 60℃below freezing.气温可降到

  -60℃,也就是零下60摄氏度。

  1)-60℃读作minns sixty degrees centigrade. Below freezing=below freezing point=below0℃

  2)fall to意为“降到”,“落到……上”

  The thermometer has fallen to 20℃below zero .温度表已降到零下20摄式度。

 

  8.In the capital, Ottawa, the average of winter temperature is-10 ℃,and in summer 21℃。

  在首都渥太华,冬季平均气温是-10℃,夏季是21℃。

  句中的average是名词,意为“平均数”“一般水平”。

  ①The average of 3,8 and 10 is 7. 3,8,10的平均数是7。

  ②Tom’s work at school is above the average; Harry’s is below the average .

  汤姆在学校的功课高于一般水平,哈利的功课却低于一般水平。

  △average也可用作形容词,意为“平均的”,“平常的”。

  ①The average age of the boys in this class is fifteen.这个班男生的平均年龄是15岁。

  ②What’s the average temperature in your area in summer ?你们地区夏季的平均气温是多少?

 

  9.Plants grow well all the year round and the parks and gardens are famous for their flowers .

  一年四季植物生长良好,这里的公园和花园都以花卉而闻名。

  1)all the year round是名词词组,意为“一年到头”,“一年四季”

  The grassland beyond this mountain has little rain all the year round .山那边的草原终年少雨。

  2)be famous for意为“由于……而闻名。be famous as意为“作为……而闻名”。例如:

  ①Califonia is famous for its fruits .加利福尼亚由于盛产水果而闻名。

  ②Suzhou is famous for ancient gardens.苏洲以古典园林而闻名于世。

  ③He is famous as a poet.作为一名诗人,他很有名。

  ④The west lake is famous as a place of interest .西湖作为一处名胜而闻名天下。

 

  10.Canada has one third of the world’s supply of fresh water .加拿大的淡水供应量占世界的三分之一。

  one third意为“三分之一”

  分数表达法:英语中分数是由基数词和序数词组成的。分子是基数词,分母是序数词。如果基数词是one,序数词后不加“s”,如果基数词大于one,序数词后必须加“s”。例如:

  one fifth五分之一 two fifths五分之二

  one fourth四分之一 two thirds三分之二

 

  11.The country has a great deal of coal, oil and natural gas, and these are all exploited for energy .

  加拿大拥有大量的煤,石油和天然气,这些全都开发作能源。

  1)句中短语a great deal of意为“大量”,后接不可数名词。下面几个词组意思都是“大量”

  plenty of ,a large number of , a large amount of a large quantity of

  △plenty of和a large quantity of后面既可接可数名词,也可接不可数名词。

  a large number of后接可数名词;a large amount of后接不可数名词。例如:

  ①He spent a great deal of money on books .他买书花了很多钱。

  ②The squirrel hide a large quantity of nuts inside trees. 松鼠在树杆里藏了很多坚果。

  ③She had plenty of imagination.她有许多的幻想。

  ④There are plenty of of eggs in the house .家中有很多鸡蛋。

  ⑤He lost a great quantity of blood. 他失血过多。

  ⑥There are a large number of people in the hall .大厅里有很多人。

  ⑦A large amount of money was spent decorating the house last year.

  去年装饰房子花了大量的钱。

  2)exploit意为“利用”,“开发”。

  ①We must exploit every opportunity to learn new things .我们必须要利用一切机会来学习新东西。

  ②They tried every means to exploit the oil under the sea .他们用了一切方法来开发海底石油。

 

Lesson 27

  1.Others remained in one place and started farms of their own .另外一些人定居下来,开垦自己的农场。

  △remain用作不及物动词,意为“逗留”“留下”“剩下”。

  ①My mother has to remain in hospital until she was better .我妈妈不得不住院,直到身体好转。

  ②After the fire, nothing remained of my house .火灾之后,我家一无所有。

  △remain用作连系动词,意为“仍然是”“还是”,后接形容词或名词表语。

  ①He remained silent .他保持沉默。

  ②She remains unmarried .她仍然单身(未婚)。

 

  2.They lived on fish and meat and used to make holes in the ice and catch fish and seals .

  他们以食鱼、肉为生,还经常在冰川上打洞捕捉鱼和海豹。

  动词短语live on意为“靠吃……为生”。

  People in the north mainly live on wheat .北方人主要以食小表为生。

  △live by靠……为生

  She lives by writing .她靠写作为生。

 

  3.They made clothes and shoes from furs and from skins of seals .

  他们用兽毛和海豹皮做衣服和鞋子。

  句中短语动词make A from B意为“用B制成A”。例如:

  The boy made a boat from wood .那男孩用木头做了一只小船。

  上述短语动词make from也可以用make out of代替,意思相同。

  make A out of B(用B制成A)被动式是A is made out of B.例如:

  The bay made a boat out of wood.(The boat was made out of wood)

 

  4.They made use of animal bones, which they carved into basic tools .

  他们利用兽骨,把兽骨雕成基本工具。

  ①Make good use of your time充分利用你的时间。

  ②She was making full use of her opportunity to practise English.她正在充分利用一切机会来练习英语。

 

  5.The government has started a new school project in which Inuit teach their own young children.

  政府已经开始实施一项兴办学校的新计划,由因努伊特人来教育他们自己的小孩。

  句中start意为“发起,开动”,“使……开始”,作此义解时,start不能被begin代替。例如:

  ①We can’t start the car . There must be something wrong with the engine .

  汽车开不动了,肯定是发动机出毛病了。

  ②He started the project for helping poor blind children .他发起了一项帮助贫困盲童的计划。

 

Lesson 28

  Grammar:语法 Agreement(主谓一致)

  1.两个或两个以上做主语用的单数名词用and连接时,谓语动词用复数,但如果and所连接的词是指一个概念或同一个人时,谓语动词则用单数。

  Li ying and Li Mei are twin sisters .李英和李梅是孪生姐妹。

  The poet and writer has come .那位诗人兼作家来了。(前面用一个冠词,表示同一个人)

 

  2.两个做主语用的名词或代词由介词with连接时,谓语动词一般和with前的名词或代词的人称和数一致。

  A woman with a baby is coming to the hospital .一个妇女抱着一个婴儿子向医院走来。

  The teacher with two students was in the room .老师和两个学生当时在房间里。

 

  3.当either…or或neither…nor连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词通常和邻近的主语一致。

  Either he or I am to attend the parents’ meeting不是他就是我去开家长会。

  Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it .孩子们和老师都不知道这件事。

 

  4.两个做主语的名词或代词由as well as连接时,谓语动词须和前一名词或代词的人称和数一致。

  The girl as well as the boys has learned to drive a car .这个女孩和男孩子一样,也学会了开汽车。

  This book, as well as the other two books is borrowed from our school library .

  这本书同另外两本书一样,都是从学校图书馆借来的。

 

  5.某些集体名词如family, class, team, audience等主语,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中的一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。

  My family is a big one我家是个大家庭。

  The family are watching TV.全家人正在看电视。

 

  6.表示时间,金钱,长度等复数名词作主语时,通常作整体看待,谓语动词用单数。

  Five minutes is enough. 五分钟就够了。

  Two hundred miles is not a long distance .两百英里并不是一个很长的距离。

  Two dollars is too dear .十块钱太贵了。

 

  7.动名词和不定式(短语)作主语时,后面的谓语动词用单数。

  To talk with him is a great pleasure .和他谈话是一件非常愉快的事情。

  Seeing is believing .眼见为实。

 

三.同步测试

  Ⅰ.单项选择

  1.Generally ____ , women live longer than men .

  A. saying B. to speak C. spoken D. speaking

  2.-Do you write to your parents very____ ?

   -Not really. Only____.

A. all the year round B. at the end

C. from time to time D. sooner or later

  3.-How much exercise is enough for people each day ?

   -It’s hard to say, because the health condition is different____ .

A. from time to time B. from person to person

C. from area to area D. a great deal

  4.His parents left him ____ money .

A. a great deal of B. a great many

C. a large number of D. thousands of

  5.I’m sorry to say that you haven’t ____ full use of your time .

A. settled B. referred C. made D. got

  6.They got married and ____ near Paris .

A. settled B. noticed C. hunted D. exploited

  7.Guilin is famous ____ its beautiful mountains and lakes .

A. in B. from C. for D. by

  8.Babies live ____ milk .

A. for B. on C. by D. from

  9.More than one member ____ needed in the match .

A. is B. are C. be D. is to

  10.The singer and dancer ____ their party .

A. are to attended B. is attended

C. were to attended D. is to attend

  11.I’m sorry I have no money to ____

A. remain B. cost C. take D. spare

  12.Each man and woman must try ____ best to help the goverment plant trees.

A. his B. cost C. take D. our

  13.-Have all the villagers left yet ?

   -No, A woman with her four children in the house .

  A. remains B. remain C. is remained D. are remained

  14.The officials didn’t see the cloth ____ the thread ____ the cheats .

A. made from, by B. made of ,by C. making from, it D. make of ,by

  15.The works of Karl Marx, of course, ____ worth studying .

  A. is B. are C. has D. have

  16.Whether she’s coming or not ____ too much .

  A. matter B. doesn’t , matter C. don’t matter D. matters about

  17.I as well as they ____ help you .

  A. are ready to B. is ready for C. am ready to D. are ready for

  18.One third of the population here ____ workers.

  A. is B. are C. has D. be

  19.The Chinese ____ a hardworking people .

  A. is B. has been C. are D. have been

  20.Every picture except those two ____

  A. has sold B. have sold C. has been sold D. have been sold

 

Ⅱ.阅读理解

A

  Mrs.Myra Webb, who was told by doctors that she would never hear again, lived for six years in a world of silence .

  But yesterday she heard a black bird sing in the garden of her home in Brighton, Sussex.“My hearing is coming back---and it’s wonderful,”she said .

  Mrs. Webb, aged 26, is said to be the first woman in Britain to have her hearing brought back by acupuncture(针炙), which is widely practised in China .

  After six months’ treatment she can listen to music again, carry on a conversation with the help of a hearing aid ---and has got a job as a typist on the South Eastern Electricity Board.

  “It’s nice to hear people talk,”she said in her home in standstead Crescent, Woodingden, Brighton.

  Mrs. Webb began to lose her hearing at the age of 12 after a serious illness.“By the age of 20 I had no hearing at all.”

  “A friend of mine told me about acupuncture and I went weekly for treatment. One night when I was in the kitchen I heard a faint sound and realized it was my musical kettle boiling. My hearing has slowly improved since.”

  Her husband David, a 28-year-old worker, said,“She is excited by the result and is continuing the treatment.”

  (From Daily Mail, May 26, 1996)

  ( )1.This story is mainly about .

A. when Mrs. Byra webb lost her hearing

B. how Chinese acupuncture is used in Britain

C. acupuncture is of great effect

D. how Brs. Byra Webb’s hearing was brought back

  

  ( )2.Mrs. Byra Webb most probably lost her hearing in .

  A. 1990 B. 1982 C. 1976 D. 1970

  ( )3.It can be inferred from the text that .

  A. Mrs. Mya Webb used to enjoy ease of mind

  B. common medicine didn’t work well in improving her hearing

  C. Chinese acupuncture has better efficacy(功效)in some diseases

  D. Chinese medicine is better than Western medicine

 

  ( )4. The underlined phrase“carry on ”in this text can be replaced by .

A. hold B. continue C. manage D. conduct

 

B

  COME TO NEW YORK AND SEE THE WORLD

  If you’re looking for the place that has everything, there’s only one place to visit, and that’s New York, It’s whole world in a city .

  The World of Theater All of New York is stage(舞台).And it begins with Broadway. Where else can you find so many hit shows in one place ? Only In New York!

  The World of Music Spend an evening with Beethoven at Lincoln Center. Swing to the great jazz of Greenwich Village. Or rock yourself silly at the hottest dance spots(=places) found anywhere.

  The World of Art From Fembrandt to Picasso. From Egyptian tombs to Indian teepees(圆锥形帐篷).Whatever kind of art you like, you like, you’ll find it in New York.

  The World of Fine Dining Whether It’s roast Beijing duck(北京烤鸭)in Chinatown, lasagna in Little Italy, or the finest French coq au vin found anywhere, there’s world of great taste waiting for you in New York.

  The World of Sights What other city has a Statue of Liberty ? a Rocketfeller Center ?Or a Bronx zoo ? Where else can you take a horse-drawn carriage through Central Park, only in New York!

  ( )1.Which of the following programmes can a visitor have only in New York ?

A. To enjoy roast Beijing duck..

B. To taste the finest French coq au vin.

C. To spend an evening with Beethoven.

D. To see the Statue of Liberty.

  ( )2.From the text we know that“Rembrandt”is most likely the name of a famous .

  A. singer B. painting C. play D. painter

  ( )3.What the writer really wanted to do is to .

A. try to persuade readers to pay a visit to New York

B. give readers some information about New York.

C. supply readers some wonderful programmes in New York

D. help readers to get a better understanding of New York

  ( )4. The above passage may be taken from .

A. a guidebook for foreign travellers

B. a handbook for English learners

C. a pocketbook for visiting businessmen

D. a storybook for native readers

 

四.参考答案

Ⅰ.单项选择

1. D 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. A 10 D 11. D 12. A 13. A 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. C 18. B

19. C 20. C

Ⅱ.阅读理解

A. 1. D 2. A 3. C 4. A B. 1.D 2.D 3.A 4.A

 

高中英语 第一册 第一单元

Unit 1 

一、【目的与要求:】掌握本单元出现的单词和词组。

introduce, practice, go away, go on doing , as a result, in one's opinion, take care of ,general idea ,give any regards to sb等等…

二、【日常交际用语】

Nice to meet you. Nice meeting you. I'll introduce you, See you soon .

I must go now . I must be off now. Give one's best wishes to sb …

三、【知识重点与难点分析】

  1、Which school were you at last year ? 你去年在哪所大学校读书?此句中的“at”也可用“in”来代替,意思不变。如:Which school are you in?

  2、So was my friend Bob White.(=My friend Bob White was also at Centre school.)

   我的朋友鲍勃怀特也在那所学校读书。

  “So +be/have/助动词/情态动词 +主语”,此结构中的语序是倒装的。这个以so开头的句子内容是接着前句而来的,表示so句中的情况与前句讲的情况相同。例如:

  You are a student. So am I. 你是学生。我也是(学生)。

  You can speak English ,and so can I. 你会说英语,我也会(说英语)。

  He likes playing football. So does his elder brother. 他喜欢踢足球,他哥哥也喜欢(踢足球)。

  A: I went to see a film yesterday. 我昨天去看了场电影。

  B: Oh, did you? So did I. 哦,是吗?我也去了。

  如果上句是否定句,下句就应该用neither或 nor 来引导一个倒装句了。例如:

  You are not a student. Neither/Nor am I. 你不是学生,我也不是(学生)。

  You have never been to the Great wall .Neither/Nor have. 你没去过长城,我也没去过(长城)。

  3、I must be off now. 我现在得走了。

  off在这里是副词,在句中作表语,表示“离开”“走开”的意思。当你表示要离开某人或谢绝对方的挽留时,你还可以说:I must go now .=I must be leaving now=I really must be going now.

  4、Nice to meet you很高兴见到你。

  此句是见面时常用的客气用语。其它见面时常用语还有:

  I'm glad to meet you.(=Glad to meet you .)

  I'm pleased to meet you.(=Pleased to meet you .)

  It's a great pleasure to meet you.

  而在分手时,人们常说:It was nice meeting you .(=Nice meeting you). It was nice talking with you (Nice meeting you.).

It was Nice to have talked with you.(=It is nice to have talked with you ).

  5、I want to introduce my friend Jane. 我想介绍一下我的朋友简。

   introduce sb to sb 把某人介绍给某人,其中“to sb”可以省略。例如:

   I'd like to introduce myself (to you). 我想自我介绍一下。

   Let me introduce my friend Peter to you? 让我把你介绍给写了先生。

   May I introduce my friend Peter to you? 可以向你介绍一下我的朋友彼特吗?

   Please allow me to introduce Miss Liu to you all. 请允许我把刘小姐介绍给你们大家。

  6、Find out the things which are different in your part of China. 找出与中国你所在地区不同的情况。

  find和find out都有“发现”、“找到”的意思。 find通常是指凭一时的感觉或偶然发现,而find out 则是指经过一番努力,研究,计算或探询而发现某物某事,通常有“找出,查明,发现,搞清楚”的意思。例如:

  He woke up and found himself in hospital. 他醒来发现自己在医院里。

  I found a $5 note on the pavement. 我在人行道上发现了一张5英镑纸币。

  Can you find out what time the train leaves? 你能查问出火车什么时候开吗?

  They tried to find out who had broken the window. 他们试图查明谁打破了玻璃窗。

  Later, he found out a new method of learning English. 后来,他找到了一种学习英语的新方法。

  7、I hope you are very well .我希望你一切都好。

  Well在此句中是形容词,通常作表语,意思是“健康的”相当于healthy的意思。例如:

  I'm not feeling well today .我今天觉得身体不大舒服。

  Is she well enough to travel?她身体康复,能够旅行了吗?

  He is much better now, thank you.他现在身体好些了,多谢你的关心。(better是well的比较好)

  Be, feel, get, look + well 身体好,康复,气色好。

  8、So every day I work from dawn until dark. 因此,我们每天 从早到晚地劳动。

  from until/till/to 冒意思是“从某时到某时”例如:from morning fill night从早到晚

  from beginning to end 自始至终,从头到尾。

  9、Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of the tractors.

  有时,我们在天黑后还要借助拖拉机的灯光继续干活。

  go on doing sth 意思是“继续(做某事),连续不断地(做某事)”

  go on to do sth表示(在干完某事后)“接着干另一件事”,即接下去干与原来不同的另一件事。例如:

  Although if was raining hard ,they still went on working in the field.

  虽然雨下得很大,但他们仍继续在地里干活。

  After he finished writing the litter,he went on to read the text of lesson one.

  他写完信后,接着读第一课课文。

  10 、Although the farm is large,my Dad has only two men working for him.

  虽然农场很大,但我爸爸只雇了两个人为他干活。

  have sb/sth doing 这一结构表示“使某人或某物持续做某事或动作持续的状态”。在句中have是“使”,“让”的意思, working 是现在分词作宾语two men的补足语。例如:

  Don't have the car waiting out side the gate all the time. 不要让汽车一直在门外等着。

  The two cheats had the lights burning all day long. 两个骗子让灯整天亮着。

  Don't have the water running all day long. 不要让这自来水整天花花地流。

  I won't have you talking to Mother like that. 我不允许你对妈妈那样说话。

  11、It doesn't often rain in the summer here, As a result we have water the vegetable garden.

  这儿夏天不常下雨,因此我们不得不给菜园浇水。

  As a resulf (由于的)结果;因此常用在有上下文的情况下。例如:

  It was late at night and there was no bus.As a resulf , we had to walk to He village.

  夜深了,又没有公共汽车,因此我们不得不步行到那个村庄。

  He had some bad fish , As a result ,he felt sick his morning .

  由于吃了些坏鱼,所以今天上午他感到不舒服。

  As a resulf of (=because of… )意思是“由于”例如:

  As a result of fog the flight was delayed. 由于有雾,航班误点了。

  He got a rist as the result of his hard work. 由于他工作勤奋,所以他长了工资。

  Thousands of people lost their lives as the result of the war.由于那场战争,成千上万的人民丧失了生命。

  另:在本句中“To water the vegetable garden”,water一词是用作动词。在英语中有些词虽然词形相同,但词类发生变化,由某一词类(如名词)变成另一词类(如动词)。如下下列句子中Pump, water即有名词,也有动词的用法。well即可用作副词,也可用作名词。

  There is a pump is the village.it works very well.we often pump water from the well to water the vegetable garden.

  12、Americans eat a lot of meat too much in my opinion.美国人吃肉很多,依我看吃得太多了。

  in my opinion=in my view意思是“在我看来,依我看”。近似于I fhink/guess/feel/suppose(我想、我认为、我觉得)等表达形式,都是用来表示个人的看法或意见等。

  what was the nicest part of your holiday in your opinion?

  在你看来,你假期中哪段时间过的最好?

  In my opinion ,autumn is the best season in beijing.在我看来,秋天是北京最好的季节。

  In charlie's opinion ,Americans should eat less meat.在查理看来,美国人应该少吃一点肉。

  In my opinion and in the opinion of most people.it is a very sound investment.照我的和大多数人的看法,这是一项很可靠的投资。

  13、In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the states.

  在信中,你问有关美国不同时区的问题。

  There are five different time areas in the states 美国有5个不同的时区。

  以上两句中的The states都是指The United States of America .美国,美利坚众国略作U.S.A或U.S.。

  下句In my state中的state 是指写信人所在的那个州,这时state的开头字母不大写。另外, time areas和 time zones同义都是指时区。

  14、Please give my regards to your parents.请代我向你父母问好。

  Regard vt. 是动词,作“认为,视为”解。regard sb as a hero 认为某人是英雄。 regard sth as a crime 把某事看作是一种罪恶。例如:

  He is regarded as the best dentist in town..他被看作是域里最好的牙医。

  在名中regards 是名词,作“问候,致意”解。give my regards /love /best wishes to sb作“代我向某人问好”解。remember me to sb 也有同义。例如:

  Please give my best wishes to your wife (=Please remember me to your wife.)请代向你妻子问好。

  15、Best wishes. 祝好。

  该句通常用于信尾,谨致问候之意,还可以说best regards 祝好!Wishing you good luck /success! 祝你走运/成功!

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit2.2.doc

标题 Unit 2

章节 第二单元

关键词 高一英语第二单元

内容

高中英语 SEFC Book 1A

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

本单元围绕实验这一题材,通过介绍实验室的注意事项,有助于学生养成良好的习惯,并使学生掌握提出要求的方式;循循善诱的化学教师、令人深思的化学课,更会有利于培养学生认真观察、一丝不苟的严谨的治学精神;注意定语从句在日常教学中的感性知识的渗透,为今后的系统学习做好准备。

 

【指点迷津】

本单元应掌握的重点、难点:

(1) show sb. sth. (2) first of all

(3) once (4) unless

(5) turn off (6) by the side of

(7) hold up (8) be filled with

(9) what about (10) make sure

(11) as (12) instead of

(13) taste/smell/feel/sound/look

(14)none of (15) while (=but)

(16)enough (17) on holiday

(18) at the back of (19) at the end of

 

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

⒈ _____ you begin to do something, you must do it well. That's the way.

A. Because B. Imagine C. Suppose D. Once

【解答】答案是D。该题为条件状语从句。once除作副词外,还可作连词,意为“一旦……就”,相当于if;但if侧重考虑条件是否具备,once则强调从句动作所涉及的结果,不存在条件是否具备问题。

⒉You'll fail in the examination ______ you work hard at your lessons.

A. if B. unless C. as D. since

【解答】答案是B。本题测试逻辑思维。四个选项都是连词,unless相当于if not。句意:如果你不努力学习功课,考试就不能及格。A、C、D选项不合逻辑,故应排除。

⒊The light is on. Don't forget to ______ when you leave.

A. turn off B. turn off it C. turn it off D. close it

【解答】答案是C。英语短语动词有三种,其结构分别是:

(1)vt. +adv. (2)vi. +prep. (3)vi. +adv.前两种是及物动作,第三种为不及物动作(例如get up)。第一种的宾语如果是名词,置于adv.前后均可;如为代词,则必须置于adv.之前。第二种的宾语,不论是名词还是代词,必须置于介词之后。turn off中的off是副词,因此选C。

⒋He tasted the medicine and found it _____ .

A. tasted bad B. was tasted badly C. tasted badly D. tasted well

 

【解答】答案是A。taste用作动词时,既可作及物动词,又可作系动词。题干上的taste是及物动词,意为“品尝”;选项中的taste是系动词,意为“尝起来……”,后接形容词、介词短语作表语。bad是形容词,据此排除其它选项。

⒌Last night he stayed at home _____ to the movie.

A. instead go B. instead of go

C. instead goint D. instead of goine

 

【解答】答案是D。instead of是短语介词,可接名词、介词短语、形容词、副词等。注意instead of前后谈及的两件客体在意义结构上必须是平行关系。例如:

①He got excited instead of angry.

②He went to Shanghai instead of back to Beijing.

③He walked more slowly instead of faster.

 

【妙文赏析】

Perhaps the most unforgettable person I have ever met is my teacher Mr.Smith. He taught us history. I still remember his lively way of teaching. Because he explained everything clearly and to the point, his classroom was always full of students. He expressed his ideas in a lively and interesting way, introduced many helpful things to his teaching, such as painting, recording and maps. He even sang a song in class to deepen his points. If it is true that life makes a wise man smile and a foolish man cry, Mr Smith is of course a wise man.

 

【思维体操】

短文改错:

此题要求你对一篇文章改错。先对每一行做出判断是对还是错。如果是对的,在该行右边横线上划一个勾(√);如果有错误(每行不会多于一个错误),则按情况改错如下:

此行多一个词:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉,在该行右边横线上写出该词,并也用斜线划掉。

此行缺一个词:在缺词处加一个漏字符号( ),在该行右边横线上写出该加的词。

此行错一个词:在错的词下划一横线,在该行右边横线上写出改正后的词。

注意:原行没有错的请不要改。

If a fire broke away in your house, what would you

do ? First, you would warn everyone in the

house in the danger. Don't be afraid of it. Second,

you and all the other should get out of the house.

It's no good take some belongings with you.

Once you are out of the house, staying out.

Don't go back in for any reason. Finally,

when you are out of the house, call on

the fire department. Always try putting out

the fire yourself, that can be very dangerous. 1. ________

2. ________

3.________

4.________

5.________

6.________

7.________

8.________

9.________

10. _______

【解答】

⒈away改为out. "break out"意为"突然爆发、发生".

⒉ 正确

⒊in改为of."warn sb. of sth."意为"提醒或警告某人注意某事".

⒋other改为others. others为代词,意为“其余的人或事”。

⒌take改为taking. "it is no good doing sth."意为"做某事没有用".

⒍staying改为stay. Stay out为祈使句。

⒎ 去掉in

⒏ 去掉on. call 表示“给某人打电话”,而call on意为“拜访”、“号召”。

⒐Always改为Never,因为根据句意应为“不要自己去救火”。

⒑that改为which,引导一个非限制性定语从句。注意关系代词that不能用于非限制性定语从句中。

三、智能显示

【心中有数】

在近些年的英语高考中,本单元要求掌握的连词as, while, unless及半系动词taste等都是比较重要的内容及考查热点。其中as表示时间,注意和when, while的区别,表示原因,注意和because, since, for的区别;while在本单元中表示转折,相当于but,强调前后的对比。

 

【动脑动手】

单项填空 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。

⒈ ______ the day went on, the weather got worse.

A. With B. Since C. While D. As

⒉Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially _____ father was away in France.

A. as B. that C. during D. if

⒊She thought I was talking about her daughter, ______ , in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

A. whom B. where C. which D. while

⒋You will be late ______ you leave immediately.

A. until B. unless C. if D. or

⒌She tasted the coffee to see if it tasted ______ .

A. nicely B. well C. good D. properly

6._______ , I must say I'm pleased to see so many friends here.

A. First of all B. Not at all

C. After all D. At all

 

【解答】

⒈ 答案是D。此处连词as引导时间状语从句,表示“随着……”。

⒉ 答案是A。该句中的as相当于when;during虽可表示时间,但它是介词,不能接句子。句意是“母亲焦急是因为小爱丽斯病了,尤其是当时父亲还在法国。”

⒊ 答案是D。并列连词while含有对照之意。句意是:“她以为我在谈论她女儿,而实际上我是在谈论我的女儿。”

⒋ 答案是B。unless引导一个条件状语从句。

⒌ 答案是C。第一个taste是及物动词,意为“品尝”;后一个taste是系动词,意为“尝起来……”,后接形容词good作表语。

⒍ 答案是A。first of all意为“首先”。全句的意思是:“首先我要说,我很高兴在这里见到这么多朋友。”

 

【创新园地】

请你根据下面四幅画的提示:以第一人称用英语写一篇故事。

注意:⒈ 故事必须包括所有图画的内容,可以适当增加细节,使故事连贯。

⒉ 词数100左右。

同学们写完后,可将你的答案反馈给我们。

 

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit3.doc

标题 American English(美式英语)

章节 第三单元

关键词 高一英语第三单元

内容

高中英语 第一册

Unit 3

一、【目地与要求】

  掌握本单元出现的单词和词组

pronounce , medicine , British , however , European , reason , explain , have some difficulty in doing……, ask…for , and so on , more or less , change…into…, come about , bring in , a great many ,等等……。

 

二、【日常交际用语】

  Would you please say that again more slowly ?

  How do you pronounce/spell… ?

  I’m sorry I know only a little English .

  I have some difficulty in doing sth .

  I’m sorry I don’t quite follow you .

  What does this word mean ?

 

三、【知识重点与难点分析】

  1.I have some difficulty in pronouncing some of the words in English .

  在某些英语单词的发音上我有些困难。

  have some difficulty (in) doing sth

  这是一个很常见的句型。意思是“在做某事方面有困难”。

  其中介词in常可省略。在此句型中difficulty是用作不可数名词,所以前面不能加不定冠词“a”,也不能改为复数形式。但difficulty前可加any , no等词,例如:

  Do you have any difficulty in translating this sentence into English ?

  你把这句子翻译成英语有困难吗?

  WE HAD NO DIFFICULTY IN FINDING HIS HOUSE YESTERDAY EVENING . (=WE DIDN’T HAVE ANY DIFFICULTY……)

  昨晚,我们毫不费劲地就找到了他的家。

  2.When do you take your near exams ?

  你们下一次考试是什么时候?

  注意本句中用一般现在时表示将来发生的动作。本句相当于:When will you take your next exams ?

  此句用法只限于将来的事件是“列入日程”的,也就是说,是按计划或时刻表将要发生的事,则可以用一般现在时来表示将来。

  例如:

  When does the winter vocation begin ?

  寒假什么时候开始?

  What time does the train leave for Shanghai ?

  开往上海的列车几点开车?

  The plane takes off at ten A.M.

  飞机上午十点起飞。

  3.Pardon ? Would you please say that again more slowly ?

  对不起,请慢点再说一遍好吗?

  Pardon ?=Beg pardon ?=I beg your pardon?

  是“对不起,请原谅”的意思。这里当没听清楚或没听懂对方话时,希望对方重复一遍的礼貌用语。意思是“I didn’t hear/understand what you said”同下句“I’m sorry , I don’t quite follow you .”一样,也是希望对方重说一遍的用语。

  4.Written English is more or less the same in both Britain and America , though there are some spelling differences .

  在英国和美国,书面英语大体上是相同的,尽管在拼法上有些差异。

  more or less 作“或多或少”、“大约”、“差不多”、“几乎”解。

  例如:

  This work is more or less finished .

  这件工作大体上已经完成了。

  I’ve more or less finished reading the book .

  我差不多已经把这本书看完了。

  It took more or less a whole day to paint the ceiling .

  粉刷天花板用了大约一整天的时间。

  I think it’s more or less a crime .

  我认为这或多或少是一种犯罪行为。

  5.How did these differences come about ?

  这些差异是如何产生的呢?

  come about意思是“发生”,“造成”。与happen , take place意思相近。

  How did this accident come about ?

  这个事故是怎么发生的?

  Nobody knows how the change came about ?

  没人知道这种变化是怎样发生的?

  Can you tell me when it came about ?

  你能告诉我这是何时发生的吗?

  6.At first ,the language stayed the same as the language used in Britain ,but slowly the language began to change from one part of the world to another.

  起初,这种语言同在英国使用的语言仍然相同,但是,慢慢地它开始在一个又一个地区发生变化。

  1)句中的stay是连系动词,作“保持(某种状态)”解。相当于remain , keep的意思。通常后边跟形容词作表语。

  例如:

  This restaurant stays open till twelve o’clock .

  这家餐馆一直营业到12点。

  The temperature has stayed high this week .

  这个星期气温一直都很高。

  2)the same as/the same…as

  是“和…一样”的意思。

  例如:

  Your bike is the same as mine .

  你的自行车和我的自行车是一样的。

  I have the same trouble as you(have).

  我和你有同样的困难。

  I feel just the same as you do .

  我和你们的感觉是一样的。

  Jenny looks the same as before .

  珍妮看上去同过去一样。

  Mary is about the same age as your mother .

  Mary大约是和你母亲同岁。

  7.Sometimes , the English spoken in America or Canada or Australia changed ; but sometimes the language spoken in these places stayed the same , while the language in England changed.

  有的时候,美国,加拿大或澳大利亚所说的英语发生了变化;但有的时候,这些地方所说的英语保持不变,而英国说的英语发生了变化。

  1)在句中“spoken in America or Canada or Australia”和“the language”,其作用相当于定语从句。

  如:Sometimes , the English which was spoken in America or Canada or Australia changed ; but sometimes the language (Which was spoken)in England changed .

  2.which在句中是并列连词,表示两种情况的对照,对比或相反的情况,意思是“进而”、“而”、“却”。

  例如:

  He is tall while his elder brother is short .

  他个子高而他的哥哥个子却矮。

  English is understood all over the world while turkish is spoken by only a few people outside turkey itself .

  英语世界通行,而土耳其语离开本国就很少有人说了。

  8.But Americans still talk about “fall” just as people do in some parts of western England .

  但是,美国人还是说“fall”,就像英格兰有些地区的人说“fall”一样。

  1)本句中的助动词do与下句“In the same way Americans use the expression”I guess “(meaning “I think ”) just as the British did 300 years ago .”中的did的用法是相同的。它们分别代替上文中出现过的谓语动词“talk”和“use”,以避免不必要的重复。

  2)just as , as是连词,引导一个表示方式的状语从句,意思是“正如”,“恰似”,“按照”。

  例如:

  Please do as I’ve told you .

  请按我说的去做。

  I have changed it as you suggest .

  我已按照你的建议作了修改。

  She loves singing and dancing , just as her mother does .

  正如她母亲一样,她也喜欢唱歌跳舞。

  Please leave everything just as you find it .

  请让一切都保持原状吧。

  9.a great many + 名词/of代词,这里一个固定搭配用法,作“许多”,“非常多”解(=a large number of ). many在句中可用作形容词,也可用作代词。

  例如:

  A great many workers went on stride last week .

  上周许多工人举行了罢工。

  Now a great many of them are out of work .

  现在他们当中许多人都失业了。

  10.There are several reasons for this .

  这种情况的原因有几个。

  1)the/ one’s reason for sth or doing sth是一个固定搭配的用法,作“…的原因、理由”解,the reason后不能用of。

  the reason why +从句,意思也是“…的原因”。在口语中也可以用the reason that .

  例如:

  Give me your reasons for doing it .

  告诉我你做那件事的理由。

  What is the reason for your hurry ?

  你为什么这么匆忙?

  This is the reason why he didn’t pass the examination .

  这就是他考试不及格的原因。

  The reason that he didn’t pass the exam was that he didn’t work hard enough .

  他考试不及格的原因是学习不够努力。

  3)reason与cause的区别。

  reason与cause作名词时都有“原因”和“理由”的意思。reason通常指产生某种行为 或想法的推理上的理由,而cause通常指导致某一事件发生的起因。reason常和for连用,而cause常和of连用。

  例如:

  Please give me your reason for absence .

  请你把缺席的理由告诉我。

  The cause of the fire is still unknown .

  这场大火的起因还不知道呢。

  11.…they also brought in some words from their own languages .

    …他们也把自己语言中的一些词汇带到英国中来了。

  bring in是动词词组。意思是“带进来”,“请进来”,“赚得”,“带来收入”。

  例如:

  We’ll bring in a professor to give us a lecture on the difference between American English and British English.

  我们准备请一位教授来给我们讲一讲美国英语和英国英语的差异。

  Don’t bring Peter in .He will do nothing to help us .

  不要请Peter来,他不会帮我们什么忙的。

  His orchards bring(him)in $2000 a year .

  他的果园每年可赚二千美元。

  He does odd jobs that bring him in ten to twelve pounds a week .

  他做零工每月可赚十至十二英镑。

  12.I have some difficulties with pronunciation .

  我在发音方面有些困难。

  在这句中difficulty是可数名词,意思是“sth difficult to do or understand=难事,难做的 事或难懂的事。”

  例如:

  She met with many difficulties when she was traveling in Japan .

  她在日本旅行时遇到了许多伤脑筋的事。

  I want to marry her , but my parents are making difficulties .

  我想同她结婚,但我父母却从中阻挠。

  13.I don’t have any more tapes .

  我再也没有磁带了。

  not…any more/no more 意思是“不再”,“再也不”。

  例如:

  She said that she wouldn’t go there any more .(=she said she would go there no more .)

  她说她再也不会到那儿去了。

  We couldn’t stand it any more .

  我们再也忍受不了了。

  I don’t want to see him any more .

  我再也不想见到他了。

  14.I practised writing them for homework .

  我在作业中练习写这些(汉字)。

  practise sth or doing sth 练习做某事。注意practise后要跟名词或动名词,不能跟不定 式。

  例如:

  They are practising speaking English with some foreigners now .

  现在,他们正在同外国人练习说英语呢。

  He practises running every morning .

  他每天早晨都练习跑步。

四、【背景知识】

  英国英语和美国英语之间的区别主要有以下几个方面:

  1)在词汇方面的区别:

  gas/gasoline(美)──petrol(英); baggage(美)──luggage(英);

  package(美)──parcel(英); mail(美)──post(英);

  movie(美)──film(英); subway(美)──underground(英);

  stairway(美)──staircase(英); soccer(美)──football(英)等。

  2)在拼写方面的区别:

  check(美)──cheque(英); jail(美)──gaol(英);

  tire(美)──tyre(英);

  美国英语一般用-or词尾,英国英语用-our词尾:

  color──colour; favor──favour;

  labor──labour等。

  美国英语用-er词尾,英国英语用-re词尾:

  center──centre; meter──metre;

  theater──theatre等。

  美国英语不双写辅音字母l,英国英语要双定辅音字母l:

  marveled──marvelled; quarreler──quarreller;

  traveling──travelling等。

  3)在读音方面的区别:

  again[′gein](美)──[′gen](英);clerk[kl:k](美)──[kla:k];

  laboratory[′lebrtri](美)──[l′brtri](英);

  此外,像dance , class , fast , half , past这些词中的元音字母a ,美国英语读作[ e ],英国英语读作[ a :],如[dens](美)──[da :ns](英);[kl es](美)──[kla :s](英);[f est](美)──[fa:st](英)等。

  4)语法方面的区别:

  在表示汉语“有”的概念时,美国英语多用动词have,英国英语多用动词完成式have got。

  例如:I have a new car.(美)──I have got a new car.(英)。又如,美国英语说I insisted that everything be ready by six o’clock that evening,而在当前标准英国英语里,这类虚拟语气形式是“should”+动词原形,也就是:I insisted that everything should be ready by six o’clock that evening .

  尽管美国英语和英国英语有着上述的一些区别,但这些区别并不影响相互之间的交际。

 

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit3.3.doc

标题 American English(美式英语)

章节 第三单元

关键词 内容

一.教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

在过去300年左右的时间里,美国英语(American English)和英国英语(British English)都发生了很大的变化,它们的发展自然不尽相同,但二者之间区别并不是天壤之别。多数英国人和美国人可以很容易地互相听懂,两国的书面语言也非常近似。对于学习英语的中学生来讲,了解英语单词是美式拼写还是英式拼写,是美式发音还是英式发音,对知道某份书面材料到底是源出于美国还是英国是很有帮助的。从另一个角度来看,随着我国改革开和的步伐向21世纪的纵深加快,广播教学和录像教学日益普及,日常生活中对美国英语的直接接触更为广泛。目前中学英语中录制的各种英语教学磁带也多属美国英语。因而,特别注意对美语的学习,并不断扩充富有时代特色的美语式交际英语无疑是非常必要的。本单元将给同学们打开一扇了解美式英语的窗口,那就请同学们从本单元中边窥视它的区别点,边欣赏它们各自的独特魅力吧!

【指点迷津】

A.单元重点新词读音归类

1.[i:]wheel reason 2.[ ]plan gas Spanish character

3.[u]cookbook 4.[ ]fall store

5.[ei]explain tape pronunciation mail 6.[au]pronounce however howl

7.[ ]European 8.[ ]Indian

9.[ ]Europe European 10.[z]reason

11.[i]difficult movie Indian direct indirect explain character pronunciation British

12.[ ]difficult pronounce however western Europe European pronunciation character holiday Britain

B.单元重点新词透视

1.difficulty作不可数名是“困难,费力”;作可数名词是“难事,难点,具体困境”。

测试要点:

(1)have some (no, little, much, a lot of, a great deal of )difficulty/trouble+(in)+doing在……有困难 如:They have no difficulty in talking with each other in English. 他们用英语交谈毫不费劲。

(2)have some (no, little, much, a lot of, a great deal of, great )difficulty/trouble+

with+n.在……有困难 如:She has much difficulty with such a long speech.她作这样长的一个报告有很大困难。

(3)with difficulty“困难地,费劲地”是副词短语作状语。He breathed with difficulty.

(4)without difficulty容易地,不费吹灰之力地

(5)in difficulty“处于困境中”是介词短语起形容词的作用。

注意:sth+be+difficult+to do(习惯上不用to be done)。如:This play is difficult to enjoy.欣赏这部戏剧不容易。(不用to be enjoyed)

2.plan作可数名词是“计划,打算,规划,方案”。如:Fred is excited about his family’s plan for a vacation in California.弗雷德对于他一家人要到加利福尼亚去度假的计划感到非常激动。

作及物动词和不及物动词。其后可跟不定式、名词、代词或者what引导的宾语从句。如:

He plans to go to Australia some day.他计划有朝一日能去澳大利亚一次。

He began to plan what he would do with his Sundays.他开始计划怎样度过星期天。

测试要点:

(1)该词的过去式、过去分词和现在分词要双写字母“n”。如:Have you planned your trip?你打算作一次旅行吗?

(2)a five-year plan一个五年计划,in a planned way有计划地

(3)make plans for为制定计划

(4)plan on +doing打算 如:I am planning on going to Beijing next month.我打算下个月去北京。

(5)plan ahead提前计划

(6)在省略句中,plan后用to代替前面的宾语。如:

--Have you planned to go abroad?

--Yes, I’ve planned to.(省去了go to abroad)

3.medicine作不可数名词是“医学,医术,内科学”。虽然可作可数名词“药”,但通常指口服的药,不加-s。

测试要点:

(1)给某人一些药give sb some medicine

(2)吃药/服药take/have some medicine

(3)学医study medicine

(4)medicine的形容词为medical“医学的,医术的,医疗上的,医疗界的”。如:a medical college医学院,free medical service

4.British不列颠的,不列颠人的,英国的,英国人的 如:the British Museum大不列颠博物馆

He is German, but his wife is British.他是德国人,他的妻子是英国人。

Britain不列颠(英格兰、威尔士和苏格兰的总称) 英国的全称:the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国

5.however作连词和副词,意思是“然而,可是,尽管如此,无论如何,不管怎样”。

测试要点:

(1)常把however置于句首,句子使用倒装结构,即把后部的形容词和副词直接跟在however之后。如:She always goes swimming, however cold it is不管天气多么冷,她总是去游泳。

However hard the work may be, we must finish it on time .无论这工作多么难,我们必须按时完成。

(2)however作副词时是插入语,可放在句首、句中或句末,往往用逗号和其它部分隔开。如:

However, we still look into the matter later.不过我们以后要调查这件事。

He was ill, however, he decided to go.他病了,然而他仍决定要去。

(3)He said that it was so, he was mistaken, however.他是这样说的,可是他错了。

6.movie“电影,电影院”,常用于美国英语中,英国英语中。如:

a movie fan电影迷,a movie star电影明星,a movie house电影院,moviegoers常看电影者,go to the movies=go to the cinema=go to see a film去看电影

7.mail是美国英语作名词是“邮政,邮递,邮件”,英国英语用post。作动词是“邮寄”。如:

测试要点:

(1)by mail通过邮寄 如:I sent her a dictionary by mail.我寄给了她一本字典。

(2)作不可数名词时常和a lot of , much, a large amount of连用,表示大量的信件。如:

There was much mail last week.上周邮件很多。

(3)作可数名词时常与定冠词the连用。如:

The ship sank and the mails were lost .船沉了,邮件全丢失了。

(4)作及物动词用,如:He mailed /posted a parcel last month.他上个月寄了那个包裹。

8.reason作可数名词是“理由,原因,道理”。如:

These are our reasons for doing it .这就是我们干此事的理由。

You have no reasons to get angry.你没有道理生气。

作不可数名词是“理智,理性,理解力,情理”。如:

There is a great deal of reason in his advice.他的劝告中有许多道理。

作动词是“推理,推论,评理”。如:

reason with sb for/against为了赞成或反对……和某人评理。

测试要点:

(1)the reason作主语其后的表语从句中用that连接。如:The reason why we are late is that our car did not come.那就是我们要你来的原因。(注意不要选why)

(2)the reason后的定语从句的连接词可以是why, that或者省略。如:That’s one of the reasons (why, that, ×)I asked you to come .那就是我要你来的原因。

(3)reason的形容词为reasonable。如:His words sound reasonable.他的话听起来有道理。

(注意不要用reasonably,因为sound为系动词要求形容词作表语。)

9.explain作及物动词和不及物动词是“解释;说明”。其名词为explanation.

测试要点:

(1)explain后不能紧接双宾语,应用:explain sth to sb。如:She explained the reason to ne carefully.她认真地向我解释了原因。(注意不要用:explain sb sth)

(2)explain后可以接that, how, why等引起的从句。如:

Please explain to me how this sentence is read .请给我解释一下这个句子怎么读。(不要用:explain me how …)

(3)注意explain和explanation在拼写上的变化很大。

(4)explain oneself交待清楚。如:She was made to explain herself at the meeting .会上要求她交待清楚。

10.character作可数名词是“汉字,字体;小说或者戏剧中的人物角色”。作不可数名词是“性格、品质、性质、特征”。

测试要点:

(1)in character在性格上 The twins are different in character.那对双胞胎的性格不一样。

(2)She is a woman of a firm character.=She is firm in character.她是个意志坚强的人。

(3)She is a woman of character.她是个有个性的人。

`C.单元重点词组扫瞄

1.(1)have some (no, little, much, a lot of , a great deal of )difficulty/trouble+(in)+doing在……有困难 如:They have little difficulty in mailing the letter. 他们向国外寄这封信毫不费劲。

(2)have some (no, little, much, a lot of, a great deal of ,great) difficulty/trouble+with+n.在……有困难如 She has lots of difficulty with her geography.她学习地理有很大的困难。

2.ask sb for sth向某人要某物,向某人询问某事。如:

He entered, asked for a coffee and sat down.

A student asks his or her parents for money and clothing.

You can write to BBC English and ask for any information you need.

注意:ask after问候,ask out邀请外出

3.more or less或多或少;大体上;差不多

The work is more or less finished.

This train arrived more or less on time.

注意:neither more or less正好,恰如其分

What you said is neither more or less.你说得恰如其分。

4.come about产生;发生=happen, take place

How did these differences come about ?

注意:come across越过,偶然碰见,come after跟踪而来,come alive活跃起来,come along一道来,进展,come around绕道而来

5.the same as; the same…as和……一样

At first, the language stayed the same as the language used in Britain.起初,这语言与英国使用的语言一样。

She is the same age as you.她和你同龄。

6.a great many=a good many=a large/great number of很多,相当多的

注意该词组修饰可数名词,后面有无of的用法请对比下面两句:

A great many books in the library are new.图书室中的很多书是新的。

A great many of the books in the library are new.图书室的书中有相当一部分是新的。

7.and so on等等

The clothes were red, green, blue, yellow and so on.

They spent their time visiting friends, reading, watching television, and so on.

注意:and so on=and so forth=etc.=and so on and so forth=and the like=and things

8.bring in引来,引进,介绍,收入,领……进来

Stick to the point;don’t bring in things that are not important.紧扣要点,不要把不重要的话题扯进来。

They started to use English, but they also brought in some words from their own languages.他们开始使用英语,但把他们自己语言中的一些词也带了进来。

Someone wants to see you .Shall I bring him in ?

注意:bring about带来,造成,bring back归还,bring up抚养,呕吐,bring down打落,使……降低,bring out发表,拿出

9.change…into=turn…into把……变成

Please change these sentences into indirect speech.把这些句子变成间接引语。

Heat changes water into steam.加热使水变成蒸汽。

I’d like to change these pounds into dollars.我很想把英镑换成美元。

注意:有时change into是指发生了化学上的变化。

10.over the centuries=in the past few centuries在过去的几个世纪中(注意句子的时态常用现在完成时)

American English has changed over the centuries, too . 在过去的几个世纪里,美国英语也发生变化。

D.大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

如何突破语言障碍(How to smooth away the language difficulties)

1.文化背景(Culture Notes)

◆作为外语初学者,与外国人交流时,难免有听不懂的时候。此时,最好不要哑口无言,要找一些恰当的话语使交流自然地进行,如必须把下列功能套用语熟烂于心,并朗朗上口:I beg your pardon?/Would you please repeat it ?/Could you say it more slowly and clearly?/Pardon ?/I’m sorry I know only a little I’m sorry I don’t quite follow do you pronounce the word ?/How do you spell your name?/What does“fall”here mean ?/I didn’t catch don’t understand what you I ask a question ?Could you repeat what you said just now ?……

当对方听到这样的话语时,可能会换一种表达方式或附加一些解释语言以便使你容易地接受。

◆在跨文化交际中,语言障碍只是一个方面,如对方使用的词汇你没有学过,对方使用的句型你没有接触过,对方工作的生活状况你不了解,对方所处地域的习俗你一点不知,对方国家的文化背景、人生价值念等你一无所知,那这些都可能直接地影响着你的交际成功与否。

◆A:Please get me a drink from the fridge, Tang jing.

B:Pardon ?

A:Please--a drink--fridge.

B:What do you mean by“fridge”.

A:Oh, that’s the short form for“refrigerator”.

B:Oh, you mean“refrigerator”.

A:Yes .

B:Ok, just wait.

E.单元语法学习目标

直接引语变间接引语“四注意”

本单元是学习直接引语和间接引语,有些同学过分拘泥于那些规则,不敢变通,有时造成很大的失误。所以建议同学们从语言实际运用的角度注意以下几个方面:

(一).间接引语即为宾语从句。间接引语是从直接引语转换来的,结构上就是宾语从句。可从以下四种句型去掌握。

1.直接引语是陈述句时,间接引语是由连词that引导的宾语从句,that常可省略。主句中的say to sb.常根据需要改为tell sb。

①He said, “I’m a doctor.”→He said(that)he was a doctor.

②She said to me, “I’m studying English these days.”→She told me that she was studying English those days .

2.直接引语是一般问句时,间接引语是由whether(if)引导的宾语从句。主句的谓语动词多用ask。

③She asked, “Are you preparing for it ?”→She asked whether(if)we were preparing for it .

如果问句是表示“建议”,可用动词suggest或advise加宾语从句或适当结构来完成。

④“Shall we meet at the theatre?”he said.

→He suggested that we should meet at the theatre.

→He suggested our meeting at the theatre.

3.直接引语是特殊问句时,间接引语为原来连接代间(副词)引导的宾语从句。

⑤He asked,“Which one do you like best?”→He asked which one I liked best .

4.直接引语为祈使句时,变成“ask /tell/order等动词+宾词+to不定式”。如直接引语是let引起的祈使句,改为间接引语用“should+动词原形”。

⑥He said,“Get everything ready in two hours.”→He asked us to get everything ready in two hours.

⑦Tom said, “Let’s have a cup of coffee.”→Tom said that we should have a cup of coffee.

(二)时态转化中的不变。

1.直接引语若表示的是客观事实或真理,变为间接引语时时态不变。

⑧The teacher said to the pupils, “The earth is round.”→The teacher told the pupils that the earth is round.

2.当引语中有表示某一具体的过去的时间的状语,谓语动词的时态情况不需要作调整。

⑨My father said to me ,“I was born in 1945.”→My father told me that he was born in 1945.

(三)其它方面转化中的不变

如直接引语要变为间接引语,转述发生在当天、当地的事,直接引语中的come here, tomorrow, this morning, today, yesterday等不必随着改变。

10.He said ,“I’ll come here this evening.”→He said he would come here this evening.

11.This morning he said ,“I’m leaving for Beijing tomorrow.”→This morning he said that he was leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

(四)结合实际,灵活使用。

学习语法要结合实际,提高运用语言的实际能力。直接引语变间接引语也要看情况,做到用适当的表达方式准确引述原话。请看下例:如果设A为听者,B和C为第三者,可根据转述者和听者的不同,分别转述为如下的间接引语。

12.He said,“You are in Class Two.”

→He said that I was in Class Two.(A对B、C转述)

→He said that you were in Class Two.(B或C对A转述)

→He said that he(he-指A)was in Class Two.(B对C或C对B转述)

如果说话者转述自己的话,人称也不需变化。

13.I said to her, “I have done my best.”→I told her that I had done my best.

同时,在变化时直接引语中有多种句型时,要根据实际灵活地运用,这样英语的表达才能更准确。

14.He said, “Will you do it ?”and I said ,“Yes .”→He asked if I would do it and I said that I would.

 

二.学海导航

【学法指要】

如何破解与汉语意义相反的特殊回答

请看下面两道考题:

1.--You haven’t been to Beijing, have you?

--. How I wish to go there!

A. Yes , I have B. Yes, I haven’t C. No, I have D. No, I haven’t

2.--Please don’t make a noise.

--___.I’ll be as quiet as a mouse.

A. Yes, I won’t B. No, I won’t C. No, I will D. Yes, I will

这两道题的答案分别为D和B。做这类题目时,首先要知道Yes后只能接肯定形式,No后只能接否定形式。如第1题中的B、C,第二题中的A、C,无论在任何情况下是不存在的;其次要知道这类题目的回答与汉语意义相反,即将Yes译成“不”,表示反对对方观点,“NO”译成“是的”,表示支持对方观点;最后根据语境揭示判断正确答案。

与汉语意义相反的特殊回答主要出现在下面三种情况。

(一)出现在陈述部分否定,疑问部分肯定的反意问句中。例如:

1.--You won’t go there by bus, will you ?

--No, I won’t .I’ll just walk.是的,我不会,我将步行。

2.--You never fall asleep in class, do you ?

--Yes, I do sometimes.不,我有时睡。

(二)出现在否定的祈使句或陈述句的对话中。例如:

3.--Please don’t be late for class.

--No, I won’t . I will be as early as possible.是的,我不会,我要尽可能地早到

4.--I hope you weren’t ill.

--No, Jeanne, I wasn’t ill.是的,让娜,我没病。

(三)出现在对否定的一般疑问句的回答中。例如:

5.--Didn’t you have a good time at the meeting ?

--Yes, a very good time.不,玩得很痛快。

6.--Can’t you remember doing the silly thing ?

--Yes, I can. I regret having done it.不,我记得,干了这件事我后悔。

【针对训练】

请根据语境提示选出正确答案。

1.--Tom doesn’t like dancing, does he ?

-- ,but he used to .

A. yes, he does B. Yes, he doesn’t C. No, he does D. No, he doesn’t

2.--The book isn’t easy for Jack to understand, is it ?

-- .His foreign language is far better than expected.

A. Yes, it is B. No, it isn’t C. I don’t think D. Yes, it does

3.--You didn’t go to the concert, did you ?

-- .I ought to have gone.

A. Yes, I did B. No, I didn’t C. Yes ,I didn’t D. No, I did

4.--Shouldn’t we invite more people to the dance ?

-- .A small dance is the most fun.

A. Yes, we should B. No, we should

C. Yes, we shouldn’t D. No,we shouldn’t

 

参考答案:1--4DABD

【妙文赏析】

A Story About Four People

This is a story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody. There was a very important job to be done, and Everybody thought that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did. Somebody got angry about that because it was Everybody’s job. Everybody thought that Anybody could do it, but Nobody realized that Everybody wouldn’t do it. It ended up that Everybody blamed(责备)Somebody when Nobody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could easily have done.

关于四个人的故事

这是一个关于“人人”“有人”“任何人”和“没有人”四个人的故事。有一项很重要的工作要做,“人人”认为“有人”将做这项工作,“任何人”能完成这项工作,但“没有人”做这项工作。“有人”对此生气了,因为它是“人人”的工作。“人人”认为“任何人”能做这项工作,但“没有人”认识到“人人”不愿做这项工作,其结果是当“没有人”做了“任何人”能很容易完成的工作时,虽然“没有人”责备“有人”,但“人人”却责备“有人”。

【思维体操】

介词用法比较精选精练

在下列每组句子的空格处填入一个正确的介词。

1.(1)Do you know the difference the two verbs?

(2)The two words are different the Chinese meaning.

(3)The word“past”is different the word“passed”.

2.(1)Ted cut the apple half.

(2)Ted cut the apple halves.

3.(1)It’s very kind you to help me with my studies.

(2)Our neighbour is always king us .

4.(1)The teacher is writing a piece of chalk.

(2)The teacher is writing red ink.

(3)The teacher is writing a piece of paper.

(4)The teacher is writing an old friend of his.

(5)The teacher is writing a letter an old man who can’t write.

5.(1)Meat does not keep good hot weather.

(2)Our teachers are always good us students.

(3)The girl is good drawing animals.

(4)Fresh air is good your health.

6.(1)We had learned 1,000 words the end of last term.

(2)We have the final examination the end of every term.

(3)They all passed the entrance examination the end.

7.(1)The teacher is rather strict his pupils.

(2)The teacher is rather strict his work.

8.(1)Paper can be made wood.

(2)Wood can be made paper.

(3)The chairs and tables can be made wood.

(4)The football team is made twenty players and a coach.

9.(1)The children are waiting the railway station their mother.

(2)The children wait their sick mother hand and foot.

10.(1)Henry dropped in Mr Crossette yesterday evening.

(2)Henry dropped in Mr Crossette’s yesterday evening.

答案

1.between,in,from 2. in,into 3.of ,to 4. with,in,on,for 5. in,to,at,for 6.by,at,in 7.with,in 8. from,into ,of ,up 9.at,foron 10. on,at

三.智能显示

【心中有数】

美国英语和英国英语在拼写上的差别探微

1.词尾-or与-our的区别就是英式拼写为-our结尾,但美式拼写为-or。如:

colour=color,favour=favor喜爱,labou=labor劳动,neighbour=neighbor,honour=honor

2.词尾英式拼写为-re,但美式拼写为-er。如:

centre=center,metre=meter

3.词尾英式拼写为-ce,但美式拼写为-se。如:

defence=defense保卫,licence=license护照,practice=practise实践,练习

4.英式拼写中词尾要双写,但美式拼写中不双写。如:

traveller=traveler,travelling=traveling,travelled=traveled

5.英式中的名词以-se结尾,但美式中以-ze结尾。如:

organise=organize组织,realise=realize认识到

6.下面的这些难以归类,前者为英式拼写,后者为美式拼写:

cheque=check支票,tyre=tire轮胎,grey=gray灰色,luggage=baggage行李,

cigarette=cigaret香烟,axe=ax斧子,plough=plow犁,programme=program节目,程序,

storey=story楼层。

【动脑动手】

从A、B、C、D中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。

1.--What will Jimmy do next Sunday ?

--He plans_____fishing.

A. to go B. to go to C. going D. going to

2.--How about going for swimming this Sunday ?

--_____very much.

A. I’ll like it B. I’d like C. I’ll like to D. I’d like to

3.Tom is strong,_______his brother is weak.

A. when B. though C. however D. while

4.I don’t know how the result comes____.

A. about B. on C. out D. over

5.MissShut, who teaches us ____English language, is _____European.

A. the ;an B. the; a C. 不填;an D.不填;a

6.She didn’t find the word____to pronounce.

A. easily B. is easily C. easy D. to be easy

7.I’m going to buy the same dictionary ____you bought .

A. like B. as C. that D. if

8.--Shall I explain it again ?

--Yes, Please. I couldn’t quite what you said.

A. agree with B. know about C. think of D. follow

9.Could you ___how to use the new computer ?

A. explain me B. explain to me C. explain for me D. talk to me

10._____he was interested in medicine, but now he wants to practise____.

A. First;drawing B. At first;drawing C. First;to draw D. At first,;to draw

11.In our hometown, people grow wheat, rice ,cotton,____.

A. and so on B. on and on C. for example D. so far

12.The English_____their language with them when the travelled to other countries.

A. brought B. carried C. took D. taught

13.Have you any trouble _____this problem ?

A. in B. of C. with D. to do

14.It takes ____hard work to finish the experiment.

A. a great many B. a good many C. a number of D. a lot of

15._____English is a bit more difficult to master than _____English.

A. Speaking;writing B. Speaking;written

C. Spoken;writing D. Spoken;written

【答案与简析】1.选A。plan to do“打算干”和go fishing“去钓鱼”的结合。2.选D。当接受别人的邀请时常用:I’d like/love to。意思是“很乐意”。3.选D。因为是两个不同对象比较,while含有对比性。4.选A。 5.选B。6.选C。句型为:find+…+形容词+to do。形容词作宾语补足语。7.选B。the same…as“和……一样”(暗指同一类),the same…that“和……一样”(暗指同一个)。8.选D。从再需要解释可知是用follow表示“明白,听懂”。9.B。explain sth to sb。10.选B。first“首选”,at first“起初,开始时”,practise+-ing。11.A。and so on=etc.=and so forth。12.选C。bring去带……,carry运载……,take随身携带。13.选C。have…trouble/difficulty+(in)+ing=have…trouble/difficulty+with+名词。“在……有困难”。该句型中习惯上不用to do。14.选D。A、B、C都修饰可数名词。D可修饰可数和不可数名词。15.选D。spoken Enlish口语英语,written English书面英语。

【创新园地】

用间接引语将下列对话改写成短文。开关已给出,请续写。(Y--Yang Mei;S--Sara)

Y:Good morning, Sara. I’m Yang Mei.

S:Good morning, Yang Mei. Nice to meet you.

Y:Now we are in the same class. I come from China. I just learned a little English. I have some problems in pronouncing some of the words in English.

S:No, you are doing well. I can follow you.

Y:Thank you.

S:What are you going to do at the weekend ?

Y:I’m going to see a film. Will you go with me ?

S:Yes, with pleasure.

 

Sara and Yang Mei were new students in the same class at school in America. Before class they had a talk. First, they said“Hi”…

 

请同学们写完后,把你的答案反馈给我们。

 

SEFS1A

Unit 3

创新园地答案

Sara and Yang Mei were new students in the same class at school in America. Before class they had a talk, First they said“Hi”to each other. Then Yang Mei told Sara she came from China and she knew only a little English. She also said she had some problems in pronouncing some of the words in English. Sara said Yang Mei was doing fine and she could understand what she said. Yang Mei was thankful. Sara asked what she was going to do at the weekend. Yang Mei was going to see a film and asked Sara to go together.

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit4.doc

标题 Travel

章节 第四单元

关键词

内容

教学目标

运用所学语言,围绕旅游这一题材,完成教材书和练习册中规定的听、说、写的任务。阅读课文“A travel diary”,确切理解,并完成有关课文内容的练习,进一步熟悉日记的书写格式。

 

二、语法

现在进行时表将来的用法。

 

三、日常交际用语

Give my regards to … / Have a nice time / say "Hello" to sb. From me

The same to you. / How about you? / Good luck

 

四、重点与难点分析

⒈Jane and Betty are going on separate holidays in a few day's time.

现在进行时用来表示一个在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。仅限于少数词:go, come, leave, start, have, take, stay, give等。

①We're having an English evening tonight. 我们今晚有英语晚会。

②I'm meeting Peter tonight . He's taking me to the theatre. 今晚我要和Peter会面,他要带我去看戏。

③They're playing some folk music next. 他们下面将演奏一些民乐。

④How are you going-by boat or by train ? 你们怎么去,坐船还是坐火车?

 

⒉ Do give her my regards.

如果句子里没有助动词,可以用do来加强语气,使用do的场合有以下几种:

①You do look nice today! 你今天气色真好!

You look nice today! 你今天气色不错!

②If you do find the book, send it to me. 如果你真的找到了这本书,给我送来。

③He doesn't often visit me, but when he does visit me, he stays for hours. 他很少来看我,可是他一旦来了,就是好几个小时。

④─Why you didn't go there ? 你为什么不去?

─I did go there. 我去啦!

⒊Say "Hi" to Bob from me. 表示向某人问候的语句还有:

send/give my best wishes / love / regards to sb.

⒋The same to you. 你也一样

①─Happy new Year.

─The same to you.

⒌Our guide is cooking supper-I can smell it.

情态动词can / could与see, feel, hear, smell连用,表示此时此刻正有的感觉。

①All night long I can hear the strange sounds of wild birds and animals .

我整夜都听见野生鸟兽发出的奇怪的声音。

②I can feel something crawling up my leg.

我感到什么东西正顺着我的腿往上爬。

③We can see then flying along the river.

我看见这些鸟顺着河飞。

⒍We can't travel through the forest by road.

Through表示动作是在某一物体的空间进行的。自这端(边)进入至那端(边)出去,“穿过”。

①He pushed his way through the crowd. 他从人群中挤过去。

②We went though a wood to the village. 我们穿过一个树林到了那个村庄。

注意与across的区分 across表示动作是在物体的表面进行的如;

③The river was frozen, so we walked across the ice to the other bank.

河面上结了冰,所以我们从冰上走过去。

⒎I think it is wrong to eat monkeys.

think, find, feel引导的宾语从句可以省略that这一句型可省略为I think it wrong to …

同样的句式:I feel / find it +形容词 / 名词+to do

①I find it difficult to work with him. 我发现和他一块工作很困难。

②She thinks it her honour to be invited to speak here. 她觉得应邀到这儿演讲是她的荣幸。

③They felt it easy to finish the work. 他们认为完成这项工作很简单。

⒏I was just about to go swimming.

①Hurry up! We are about to start. 快点,我们马上要动身了。

②He was just abut to leave when we arrived. 我们到的时候,他正要离开。

 

⒐The population of the country is growing every minute.

population作“人口”讲时,一般不作复数,人口众多时用has a large population或has a population of…

─What is the population of this city?

─The city has a population of two hundred million.

⒑I could see nothing except a great fire and lots of smoke.

Nothing except / but=only

①I've eaten nothing but bread since Sunday. 从星期天以来我只吃了面包。

②Everybody has arrived but Jack and Tom. 除了Jack和Tom大家都到了。

③He couldn't do anything but sit there and hope. 他别无他去,只能坐在那儿往好里想。

⒒They can sell their beef at a high price以高价出售

①at表示价钱、速度

run at 60 miles an hour. 以每小时60英里的速度行驶。

at full speed 全速

sell at 2 Yuan 卖2块钱

⒓They move on to a new place every two or three years.

every与基数词、序数词,other和few连用,表示重现或时间空间的间隔。

①Write on every other line. 隔行写

②There are buses to the station every ten minutes. 每隔十分钟有公共汽车进站。

⒔be made of, be made from和be made into, be made in, be made up of的区别

①The deske are made of wood. 看得出原材料的。

The bridge is made of stone.

②The wine is made from rice. 看不出原材料的。

③Glass can be made into many kinds of things. 玻璃可割成许多种东西。

④This watch is made in China. 这块表是中国制造的。

⑤The team is made up of three girls and five boys. 这个队由3个女孩和5个男孩组成。

⒕ 日记的格式

左边顶格写日期,右起写天气,写日记一定要注意人称和时态,通常情况下使用第一人称和一段过去时。

sunny阳光明媚 windy有风的 cloudy多云的 rainny下雨 snowy有雪

 

典型题题:

⒈We ______ each other the best of luck in the examination.

A. hoped B. wanted C. expected D. wished

⒉How ______ can you finish the drawing.

A. often B. soon C. long D. rapid

⒊How beautifully she sings! I have never heard ______ .

A. the better voice B. a good voice

C. the best voice D. a better voice

⒋If I had ______ , I'd visit English.

A. a long enough holiday

⒌His father is in hospital. He goes to see his father _______.

A. every other day B. each two days

C. every the second day D. every second day

⒍Are you coming to ______ at the station?

A. see as over B. send us C. see us off D. see us out

⒎I found a very good dictionary in the bookshop, but I _______ any money with me.

A. happened to have B. happed not to have

C. didn't happed to have D. happened having

⒏ _______ weather it is !

A. what a fine B. few fine C. what lovely D. what a lovely

⒐The museum is not opened to the public ______ on Sundays.

A. except B. without C. beside D. except for

⒑Most of the population there _______ women.

A. has been B. was C. is D. are

⒒I don't think she had a good time there, _______ ?

A. did she B. do I C. didn't she D. doesn't she

⒓I go there every three days. Last time I went there on Sunday. Next time. I'll go there on ______.

A. Wednesday B. Thursday C. Tnesday D. Friday

 

答案及分析

⒈D 动词wish可用wish+n. / pron.+n的结构 此句意思是:“我们彼此祝愿考试时好运。”

⒉A How often对表示“频率”性的状语提问;how soon对表示“过多久”的状语提问;how long对表示“多长时间”的状语提问;how rapid表示“速度”的状语提问。

⒊D 题干提供了一个两者之间比较的语境,意思为:“她唱得多好啊!我从来没听过比这还好的嗓音。”

⒋A long和enough同时修辞holiday,enough+n.,adj+enough 例如:I have no enough money. You are old enough to go to school.

⒌A 每隔一天去一次

⒍C see sb. off 送别

⒎B happen to表示“碰巧”… 在书店我发现了一本好字典,但碰巧我没带钱。

I happened to be out when he called. 他来电话是我正巧不在家。

⒏C weather是不可数名词。

⒐A 除了每个星期日,博物馆不对外开放。on Sundays表示“每个星期日”

⒑D population表示“人口”时用单数,这句话中表示people,用复数。

⒒C 我觉得她玩得不好,是不是?

⒓A 我每三天去一次,上次是期日去的,下星期三再去。

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit4.4.doc

标题 Travel (旅行)

章节 第四单元

关键词

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

  同学们,你喜欢旅行吗?从祖国冰天雪地的北疆到风光旖旎的南国,从天山之麓到东海之滨,祖国的名山大川美不胜收。万里长城是中华民族魂的象征,多少游人足蹬长城激昂慷慨。冰天雪地的青藏高原,耸立着神圣的珠穆琅玛,有谁不慨叹它的巍峨与高大?波涛涌动的东海之滨,帆影点点,无数志士伟人赞叹它的雄奇与宽阔的胸怀,乘风破浪,直挂云凡济苍海。登山则情满于山,观海则意溢于海。看着那鲜花、碧草与冰雪为邻的别样景致,欣赏着白云从身旁飘过,羡慕着雄鹰在天空翱翔,真让人沉浸在美好的遐想中。如果你到了海边,你一定会感到海在笑,粼粼地笑,一片青苍辽阔的碧水,染透了深邃无边的翠色。在波涛上轻浮着的渔船,像是摇荡在波澜不惊的油画里。

  从乌拉尔山顶的皑皑白雪到白令海峡的滔天海潮,从椰林飘香的印度支那半岛到冰天雪地的西伯利亚荒原,你想领略这一切吗?领略克里姆林宫的威严、感受日内瓦的温柔、欣赏波罗的海的惊涛骇浪、评鉴自由女神像的潇洒。无论是熙暖韵致的春,浓绿热忱的夏,冷清浪漫的秋,幽静洁白的冬,……每一片土地,每一处古迹都会给你一种无可名状的激情,一种源远流长的文明气息将充溢你的全身,渗入你的每一个细胞。

  从本单元的课文中,我们了解到的是在不断的技术创新的动力支撑下,人类征服和超越自然环境、扩大和拓展人工自然的文明进程可谓是风帆高扬、凯歌行进;在当代大多数人的生存环境中,各种建筑物和街道所组成的人工建造的物质环境逐渐取代了由森林、河流、山川和平原所组成的自然环境,充满“田园牧歌”意味的自然环境正逐渐隐去,并退缩到人类意识的一个被遗忘的角落之中。然而就在社会生产力得到成百倍增加,社会生产方式发生巨大变迁,人口激增,工业化和城市化过程迅猛推进的同时,环境污染作为一种巨大的危机也开始第一次降临到人类的头上:到处是林立的烟囱和浓密的黑烟,浑浊的河流,遍地的工业废物,失去生机的大地和森林。农业时代的那种“落霞与孤骛齐飞,秋水共长天一色”的“田园牧歌”景色已不再有,人与环境和谐相处的那种“采菊东篱下,悠悠见南山”的自然审美情趣也逐渐远去,人类从此仿佛是踏上了一条远离养育自己的大地自然母亲的不归路。这一切难道不令人深思吗?

 

【指点迷津】

 A.单元重点新词读音归类

  1.[ ] taxi bank parrot 2.[ ] airport reporter

  3.[a:] guitar sharp Klarke 4.[ ]hotel bone

  5.[ai] guide wild sight mile price 6.[ ] soil destroy

  7.[ ]bank 8.[z]phrase

  9.[ju:] future 10.[i:] centimetre weekend

  11.[i] separate (adj.) taxi trip villager guitar centimetre destroy reporter

 B.单元重点新词透视

  1.separate作形容是“单独的,各自的”,作动词是“分开,分离”。如:Bob will separate the bad apples from the good ones. 鲍勃要把坏苹果与好苹果分开来。He separated the boys from the girls.

  Please cut it into three separate parts.请把它分成3份。Keep the onions separate from the bread or they'll make it smell.把洋葱和面包分开放,否则面包会有味儿。live separate分居。The children sleep in separate beds .孩子们分床睡的。

 

测试要点:

  (1)搭配:separate…from…把……与……分开

  (2)辨析:separate…from…与divide…into… separate含把原来结合在一起的、混合在一起的分开或者隔离。divide含把整体分成若干部分。如:Separate your things from divided the apple into halves. /The house is divided into four parts .这座房子被分作了四部分。

  (3)taxi作名词是“出租车”,相当于taxicab, cab, 作动词是“坐出租车,用出租车送”。如:We taxied to the theatre.我们坐出租车去戏院。The visitors have been safely taxied to the hotel.客人们已被出租车安全送到旅馆。

测试要点:

  (1)在一般现在时中,用在第三人称主语后或者作名词的复数:taxis=taxies

  (2)搭配:take a taxi to +地点, by taxi乘出租车,go by taxi=go in a taxi乘记程车去,打的去,get in/into a taxi上出租车(注意不是get on ),get out of a taxi下出租子(注意不是get off)。

  (3)该词的现在分词是:taxiing=taxying。出租汽车驾驶员是:taximan。

  3.weekend周末(星期六和星期日)。作动词是“度周末”。如:I don't work at weekends.(美语中用:on weekends)We are going for a long weekend to Paris.我们要去巴黎度一个长周末。(即从星期五至星期天或星期一) He weekended away from home last time.上次他离开家度周末了。

 

测试要点:区别:weekend与weekday

  weekday周日(指除星期日以外或除星期日和星期六以外的日子),在周日。如:She works(on) weekdays .她平时天天上班。

  4.guide作名词是“向导,导游者,领路人,指导者,指南,入门”,作动词是“为……领路,带领,引导,指导”。如:Experience is a good guide.经验就是很好的导师。a traveller's guide旅客指南,guide the boys in their studies指导孩子们学习。I know the place well, so let me be your guide.

 

测试要点:

  (1)“对……的指导”的介词在测试中用to。如:a guide to English grammar英语语法向导,His book, A Guidde to Poultry Keeping, is to be published next month.他的《家禽饲养手册》下月就要出版了。

  (2)不用“guide sb to do”应用“guide sb +in (into, through, towards…”。 如:

Our party leads us in building guided the blind man to his He guided me through the thick forest.

  5.sight作名词是“情景;风景;目光;视力;看到;视野”。作动词是“见到”。如:She lost her sight in an accident.她在一次事故中失明了。Keep out of my sight !别让我再看见你!

 

测试要点:

  (1)搭配:have long/far sight远视。have short/near sight近视。have good/poor sight视力好/差。have one's sight tested视力检查。in sight可看得见的,在视线内。out of sight看不见的,在视程之外。catch/have /get sight of突然瞥见。at the sight of一看见……就。at first sight乍一看,第一眼。如:They ran away at the sight of the police .他们一看见警察就逃之夭夭了。I caught sight of her hurrying away.我瞥见她匆匆走了。

  (2)作“风景”讲常用复数。如:The sunset was a beautiful sight.日落是很美丽的景象。John enjoyed seeing the sights of the West Lake.约翰很喜欢观赏西湖风景。

  (3)辨析:sight, scenery, view, scene

  sight指“景色”是可数名词时,往往指眼见的景色,如供人游览的“景”和“名胜”,但尤指人工制成的景。One of the beautiful sights is the castle.那城堡是美景中的一个。

  scenery是个不可数名词,含不管是否映入眼帘的风景。The road passes through the most charming scenery.这条大路穿过极为迷人的风景区。

  view和scene所表达的景色都是scenery中的一部分,往往指自然景色。如:Do you enjoy the ten famous views of the West Lake?你喜欢西湖十景吗?There is a lovely view from this window .从这个窗子可以看到一片秀丽的景色。There is a happy scene of children playing in the garden.孩子们在花园里玩耍,好一派欢乐的景象。

  另外,scene还可指舞台的场景。

  6.price是可数名词“价格,价钱”“代价”。当不表示物品的具体价格,而只表示“价格”的概念时是不可数名词。如:What's the price of this coat ?这件衣服多少钱?House prices are getting higher.房价在上涨。

  注意该词名词复数的发音为[praisiz]

测试要点:

  (1)价格分“高底”,物品分“贵贱”。如:(错)The price is expensive/cheap.

(对)The book is expensive/cheap.

  (2)价格作主语时,疑问句不能用how much提问,应用What。如:What is the price of cabbages today ?=What price of cabbages today?今天洋白菜啥价?

  (3)搭配:sell sth at a high/low price以高价或低价出售。at any price=at all costs不惜任何代价。pay a high price for为……付出很高的代价。above/beyond/without price无价之宝。

  (4)区别:price, cost, value, worth, charge, expense

  price定价(指卖方对物品所要求的价格,高于cost)

  cost价值,成本(指对货物所付的一切代价,如制作、包装、运输等)

  value价值(按人的主观判断对物品本身内在的有用评价)。如:I paid him $500 for the painting, but its real value must be about $50,000.

  worth价值(指物体本身永远不变的价值,含着一定金额的数量,用法比较特殊)。如:sth be worth +ing(不用动名词的被动式和不定式)。“sth be well worth+钱”是“某物相当值钱”。

  charge索价(指为其提供服务后所要求应付的价钱,常用句型:charge sb+钱+for sth。free of charge免费)

  expense开支,花费(指对……的实际开支花费的金额,常用于:at the expense of , at one's expense以……为开支)

  (5)询问价格有多种表达方式。如:这个你要卖多少钱?How much do you ask for (want for, sell) it ?=How much does this cost?=How much is this worth?=What does it cost?=What is this worth?=What's the price of this ?=What's your charge for this ?=What do you charge for this ?

  (6)priceless是“无价之宝的,贵重的”=costly=valuable=invaluable=precious=dear。valueless是“不值钱的”。

  7.destroy常作及物动词是“破坏,毁坏,打破……计划,消灭”。(反义词是:construct)如:All her hopes were destroyed.她所有的希望都破灭了。

 

测试要点:destroy, damage, destruction, break, ruin, spoil, wreck

  destroy指剧烈的毁坏到不能再使用的程度。damage指造成的一定程度上的损失。destruction是不可数名词,如the destruction of a town。break可用于大小东西的损坏。ruin指天灾人祸般的彻底摧毁性。spoil指把事情弄糟。wreck指船、飞机、轮船等交通工具的摧毁。

  8.but作介词“除了”(用于no, all, nobody, who, where等词之后)=except。如:All of them but /except me /I had been there before.除我以外,他们以前都到过那里。(用I时but是连接词)。next but one (two,…)隔一个(两个……)。last but one (two, three…)倒数第一(第二,第三……)。

 

测试要点:but前有实义动词及其变形时,but后的不定式在测试中省略to。如下面题的答案为C。

Last night I did nothing but TV.(A. to watch B. watched C. watch D. watching)

对比:The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。

  9.phrase短语,习惯用语,词组,片语,措辞。(复数phrases[preiziz])。如:a noun phrase名词短语,a prepositional phrase介词短语,an adjective phrase形容词短语,phrases and idioms习语和成语。如:The book is on the table.-“on the table”is a phrase这本书在桌子上──“在桌子上”是个短语。He spoke in simple phrases, so that the children understood used so many scientific phrases that we did not understand him.

  区别:phrase短语。expression表达,词句。idiom成语。proverb谚语。

  10.future作名词“将来,未来”。作形容词“将来的,未来的”。如:Children are the future of our motherland.儿童是祖国的未来。It suggests a great future for our Party. 这表明我们的党有光明的前途。He decided that he would build his future home by a lake.他决定在湖边建造他未来的住宅。

 

测试要点:辨析in the future, in future, for the future

  in the future=in time yet to come(常指遥远的以后)将来,今后。如:Who knows what will happen in the future?

  In future=from now on(指从今以后不再……)。如:You must be careful in future.你今后可要多加小心。

  for the future为了以后,为了将来。如:We study hard and gain more knowledge for the future.我们为了以后,要努力学习,获得更多的知识。

 

 C.单元重点词组扫瞄

 

  1.in a few days' time=in a few days=a few days away几天以后(与将来时连用)。after a few days几天以后(与过去时连用)。如:He will be back in a month.他一个月后回来。He came back after a month.他一个月后回来了。

  注意区别下列各句:He will come back after six o'clock.(具体指6点后)/He will come back in six hours.(约6个小时后)/He will come back in a week's time .(一周后)/He is going to Beijing in three days?/B> time.(三天后)

  2.see…off为某人送行。如:We saw the foreigners off at the of people were at the airport to see them off .

  3.take a taxi to +地点“乘出租车去……”。如:We must take a taxi to the hospital to call on her.

  4.have a nice/good time in /at +地点“在……过得愉快”。如:Have you had a nice time in Guangzhou?/Did you have a good time at the cinema?

  注意:Have a nice /good time !祝你愉快!(是一个祝愿用语)。又如:Have a pleasant/good trip!/Have a good day!祝你走运!/Good luck to you!/Happy birthday!/Wish you good health!

  注意下列表达:say goodbye to sb向……告别。say sorry to sb=apologize to sb向……道歉。say yes /no to a plan同意/否定一项计划。

  5.be about to do即将干……正要……如:She was about to leave when the postman arrived.

  注意区别:be about to do不与表示将来的具体时间状语连用。be going to do可以表示与将来的时间状语连用。

  6.The same to you .祝你也如此。如:A: Happy New Year to you ! B: The same to you .

  注意区别:(1)A: Have a good holiday! B: Thanks .The same to you .

       (2) A: Happy birthday to you ! B: Thank you very much.

       (3) A: Congratulations on your success! B: Thanks a lot .

  7.get back=come back=return回来,返回。

  8.tie…to …把……系在……

  9.take off起飞;脱下。

  10.every two years每两年。every second year=every other year每隔一天。

  注意区别:every three days每三天=every third day每隔两天。every four days每四天=every fourth day每隔三天。every two kilometres每隔一公里(或者:每两公里)。every few hours每过几小时。这说明要用“每隔……”翻译成汉语时,要把英语中的数字减去一。如:The old man went to hospital every five days.那老汉每隔四天就去看一次病。There are buses to the station every ten minutes.每十分钟就有公共汽车去火车站。I went to see a film every two weeks.我每隔一星期去看一次电影。Please take the medicine every four hours .这药要每四小时服一次。(即每隔三小时)

  11.in South America在南美洲

  12.play the guitar弹奏吉他。有时也用:play one's guitar弹某人的吉他。

  13.for miles and miles连绵数英里

  14.stay long呆很久

  15.for one or two years=for a year or two一两年

  16.20 centimetres thick 20厘米厚

  17.nothing but=nothing except=only只有。如:He has eaten nothing but a few pieces of bread since Sunday.

  18.How long does the journey take you ?你旅行用了多长时间?

 

 D.大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

  Good Wishes, Congratulations and Responses (祝愿、祝贺和应答)

  (1)Idiomatic Sentences功能套语

  请对方代你问候某人用:give one's regards to sb=give one's best wishes to sb=give one's best love to sb=give one's best regards to sb代向某人问候。如:Do give my best regards to your sb from sb=give one's regards to sb替某人向……问好。

  Have a nice/good luck.祝你好运!/Have a good trip!祝旅途愉快!祝一路顺风!/How about you?你觉得怎样?/Best wishes to you !向你致以最良好的祝愿。/Congratulations!恭喜!/Merry Christmas!圣诞快乐!/Happy birthday to you !/Happy New Year!/You won the first place. I'd like to be the first to congratulate you upon it . /Many congratulations on your happy birthday!/A merry Christmas and a happy New Year !/Happy Spring Festival!祝春节愉快!/I wish you good luck and success to you !/I wish you great success in your work in the future .祝你在今后的工作中取得更大的成就。/I wish you lots of happiness !/May everything you want come true ! 祝心想事成!/May New Year bring you all good things. 祝新年万事如意!/Best season greetings!衷心祝节日愉快!

  (2)Model Dialogues交际示范

   Sara:Good evening, Mick. I'm so glad you could come.

   Mick:Good evening, Sara.

   Sara:Please come in and take a seat.

   Mick:Happy birthday to you, Sara. This is for you.

   Sara:A gift for me ?

   Mick:Sure. Congratulations on this happy day.

   Sara:Thank you. (Open the gift)Oh, it's lovely and very beautiful.

   Mick:I'm glad you like it .

 

 E.单元语法学习目标

 

  本单元复习现在进行时的基本用法。了解现在进行时表示将来的特殊用法。区别be about to do, be going to do, will/shall do。现在进行时在测试中经常以不同语境出现,必须引起高度的重视。

 

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

  现在进行时的测试要点

  (1)表示此刻正进行的或者发生的动作,时间状语now, at the moment可有可无。如:Look! Dark clouds are 's playing a joke on me 're busy at the moment. I'm selling cigarette. My father is selling some sweets.

  (2)表示现阶段正进行而此刻不一定在进行的动作。时间状语now, these days可有可无。如:She is studying law while her brother is studying are you getting along with your studies these days?/I usually get up at seven, but I'm getting up at six every day this she working hard in the factory ?

  (3)表示按计划安排近期将要发生的动作。常用于这种用法的动词有:go, come, do start, leave, arrive, return, begin, move, join, finish, drive等。如:We are meeting him after the We're going to London next is leaving for Shanghai in a few days.

  (4)用在时间或者条件状语从句中表示将来正进行的动作。如:I'll think about it while you're writing the you are talking with him, take care not to mention this you post this letter for me if you are passing a post-box? If you are standing at the corner when I pass, I'll give you a lift into town.

  (5)表示在刚刚过去的时间中发生的动作。如:I don't know what you're talking about. /you don't believe it ?you know I'm telling the truth.

  (6)动词hope, wonder用现在进行时表示委婉的口气。如:I'm hoping you'll give us some advice. /I'm hoping you can come and have lunch with me .I've been wanting to ask you for a long time. /I'm wondering if I may have a word with are wondering if you have any suggestion.

  (7)现在进行时和一般现在时的区别在于:表示现在经常性的动作用一般现在时,而表示现在暂时性的动作则用现在进行时。如:My watch works watch is working perfectly.

  Always, continually, constantly, forever等与现在进行时连用往往带有喜、怒、赞扬、愤恨、讨厌、不满等的感情色彩。而用一般现在时只表示事实。如:John does fine work at is always thinking of how he could do more for the people .(赞场)/He is constantly leaving things about.(讨论与不满)/She is always changing her clothes.(厌烦与嫉妒)

 

【妙文赏析】

  A visitor visits an island where two tribes(部落) live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other always lies. The truth-tellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truth teller or not by asking only one question. He tells the native to go and ask that native in the distance which side of the island he lives on .When the messenger returns, he says to the visitor, “He says he lives on the western side of the island.”

  Is the messenger a truth-teller? How can the visitor be sure ?

  1.The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is WRONG?

   A. He may live on the eastern side of the island.

   B. He may live on the western side of the island.

   C. He may be telling the truth.

   D. He can't be telling the truth.

  2.According to the messenger's answer, the visitor can conclude that    .

   A. the messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth

   B. the messenger probably lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie

   C. it is hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth-teller or not

   D. the messenger probably lives on the western side of the island because his answer nay be true

  3.The visitor himself doesn't go and ask the question of that native in the distance, because     .

   A. he is sure that the native beside him is a truth-teller

   B. he wants to decide which side of the island the messenger lives on according to his answer to the question.

   C. he wants to decide which side of the island that native in the distance lives on according to the messenger's answer

   D. he can't express himself in the native language

  4.If the visitor goes to ask the native in the distance himself and decide which side of the island he lives on, the cleverest question should be“     ?”

   A. Which side of the island do you live on

   B. Do you live on the western side of the inland?

   C. You live on this island, don't you

   D. Do you like to tell lies or tell the truth

  5.Which title of the following is the best?

   A. Visiting a Strange Island B. A Funny Story

   C.A Clever Question D. The Visitor and the Messenger

 

【答案与解析】

  该短文以简单的情节表达了一个典型的逻辑推理过程。解题中必须正确理解其中几个情态动词的意义和表意愿倾向的副词。

  1.选D。句中的can't在此是“不可能”,不是“可能不”,表示绝对否定,这不合事实。其它中的may都以合乎逻辑而起干扰项。2.选A。关键在于承认这一事实:只要“the messenger”带回的话是“远处的人说他住在岛的西边”,那么“the messenger”就属于说实话部落的人。3.选B。事实是,远处的人回答只有一种:他住岛西边,否则,带话者在撒谎。4.选C。选项A,问不出所以然;选项B,东边和西边人都会说住在岛的西边;选项D,无论对方是哪边人,都会说自己说的是实话,只有C,才能置对方于“两难境地”,如果说他是说谎部落的人,他的回答必然是“不住在岛上”,这是与事实相矛盾的。5.选C。从无论是测试the native beside him的问题,还是测试the native in the distance的问题,你不能不认为此篇最贴切的标题是“聪明的问题”。

 

【思维体操】

  The following notice is posted in a bus terminal(终点站).Time Table:

  -Buses leave the Railway Station, New York City, from 7:00a.m. every half-hour thereafter(此后),until 11:30p.m.(7 days a week)

  -Buses leaves the Brennan Station 20 minutes before and after every hour from 6:20 a.m. to 10:40 p.m.(7 days a week)

  -Evening rush hours(5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.):Buses leave the Railway Station, New York City, every 15 minutes.(Monday-Friday)

  -Holidays: Buses leave every hour on the hour, each direction.(Trip time:30 minutes each way)

  -All tickets must be bought at window 12,the Railway station. New York City, or at the Brennan Station Window BEFORE boarding buses.

  1.At which time does a bus leave New York for Brennan on Thursday ?

   A. 8:30 a.m. B. 10:15 a.m. C. 3:15 p.m. D.11:45 p.m.

  2.Which is the lastest bus you could take from Brennan if you had to meet a friend in New york at 10:20 a.m. on Friday ?

   A. The 8:00 a.m. bus. B. The 9:40 a.m.bus.

   C. The 8:40 a.m. bus. D. The 9:20 a.m.bus.

  3.Which is the latest bus you could take from Brennan if you had to meet a friend in New york at 10:20 a.m. on Friday ?

   A. 5:40 a.m. B. 9:00 a.m. C. 4:20 p.m. D. 11:40 p.m.

  4.If you wand to take a bus in evening rush hours, you should take the bus in the Railway Station, New York City on Monday.

   A. 6:20 p.m. B. 5:45 p.m. C. 4:20 p.m. D.7:15 p.m.

  5.Where should passengers buy their tickets ?

   A. From the bus driver before boarding the bus. B. On the bus after boarding the bus.

   C. At the window with the above notice. D. At a terminal ticket window.

 

【答案及解析】

  1.考事实询问,由发车时刻表的第一条可知,公共汽车离开New York开往Brennan的时间是在上午7:00到夜间11:30之间每隔半小时一班,故A正确。

  2.考是否理解并掌握文章提供的信息。由通知中发车时刻表的第二条可得知,公共汽车离开Brennan开往New York的时间是上午6:20到夜间10:40之间,每小时的前后20分钟各有一班,根据题意,最迟一班为下午9:40,无疑正确答案为B。

  3.考查细节理解。答案需要通过观察得出,由发车时刻表第二条可以了解到,公共汽车由Brennan开往New York的时间是6:20 a.m.-10:40 p.m,先排除A、D。再根据每小时的前后20分钟各有一班,可以判断出答案为C。

  4.考查事实询问。由发车时刻表第三条中可先排除C、D。再根据所提供的信息,公共汽车在晚上车辆高峰时期每15分钟一班,可以推知答案为B。

  5.考查综合判断能力。对短文第一句及最后一句所提供的信息进行综合归纳,就可以判断出乘客购买车票的地点是在终点站窗口,故答案选D。

 

三、智能显示

【心中有数】

  英语时态的异常表现

  截止到本单元,同学们学习过的英语时态有如下异常表现:

  一、在时间和条件状语从句中的谓语动词,常不使用将来时态。在将来时间条件下,用一般现在时取代一般将来时,用一般过去时,取代过去将来时。如:I'll go there with you if it doesn't rain tomorrow.(如果明天天不下雨,我将和你去那儿。)

  二、结束性、终止性动作(find, know, finish, work out, hear等)常不用进行时态。如果遇到了now(现在)、at the moment(此刻)等时间状语时,最好用现在完成时表示。如:He has finished his homework now.(现在,他已完成了他的家庭作业。)

  三、某些动词(多为表示起、止、往、返动作)的进行进态,可与表示将来的时间状语连用,表示将来发生的动作。如:I'm leaving Beijing for Shanghai next week.(下周我将离开北京去上海。)

  四、某些动词的现在进行时态,可以用来表示惯常发生的动作,只不过含有某种感情色彩。如:Mum! You're always telling others about me.(妈妈!你总是逢人就讲我的故事)

  五、在表示客观真理的句子中,谓语动词用一般现在时。如:The teacher told the students that the sun is much bigger than the moon. (老师告诉学生们,太阳比月亮大得多。)

  六、当主句的谓语动词用了一般过去时态时,宾语从句的谓语动词则一般应该用与其相应的某种过去时态。如:He told me he would go to the United States tomorrow.(他告诉我他明天将去美国。)

  七、和某一准确过去时间状语连用的某一动作,即使它在另一动作之前发生,也不用过去完成时,仍用一般过去时。如 :He told me that the was born in 1960.(他告诉我他生于1960年。)

  八、在表示客气、委婉的问句中,往往用过去时态代替现在时态。如:Could you help me with English ?(您能帮助我学习英语吗?)

  九、在表示不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句的谓语动词用过去时态(虚拟语气)。I wish you were on the moon now.(我但愿你现在就在月亮上。)

  十、当时间状语从句的连词before, after, as soon as, until等时,即使主从句中的两个谓语表示的动作一先一后发生在过去,先发生的动作也不用过去完成时表示,都用一般过去时。例:He didn't leave until his mother came back.(直到他母亲回来,他才离开。)

 

【动脑动手】

从A、B、C、D四个选项中选出一个最佳答案:

  1.My father went to his doctor for some advice about his heart disease     .

   A. each two weeks B. each second week

   C. every two weeks D. every other weeks

  2.The train     when we hurried into the station.

   A. is leaving B. had left away C. has left D. was about to leave

  3.There is nothing     sand in the Sahara Desert.

   A. but B. except for C. besides D. of

  4.The chicken on the plate looks     and smells     as     .

   A. nice; good ;well B. well; nice; well C. good; nicely; good D. well; well ;well

  5. A great change in people's thinking has     in the past few years.

   A. come along B. come about C. come over D. come up

  6. Some important leaders have gone to the airport to     Chairman Jiang.

   A. send off B. put off C. see off D. turn off

  7.-Have a nice weekend!

   -     .

   A. The same to you  B. You do too  C. The same as you  D. You have a too

  8.These plants are watered     .

   A. each othe day  B. every other day C. each of two days D. every of two days

  9.The doctor will be free     .

   A.10 minutes later B. after 10 minutes C. in 10 minutes D.10 minutes after

  10.The price of oil is     than before.

   A. a little cheaper B. more high C. more expensive D. much lower

  11.-My dress is made     silk. What about yours ?

    -Mine is made     Mum's old things.

   A. from; of B. of; from C. of ; of D. from; from

  12. Please say Hello to Mr.Wang     me when     him tomorrow.

   A. for; to see B. from; seeing C. through; see D. by; you will see

  13.Nobody but I     about the matter.

   A. knows B. have known C. know D. is knowing

  14.In the evening I loved sitting     the fire and     the guitar.

   A. on; played B. by; played C. beside; to play D. by; playing

  15.Don't tie your horse     such a young tree,     ?

   A. with; do you B. on; do C. to; will D. in; would

 

【答案与解析】

  1.选C。every two weeks=every second week=every other week每两周。英语中表示“每……”时常用every,不用each。但表示“在……两旁”中不用every。如:on each side of the river=on both sides of the river=on either side of the river在河的两岸。2.选D。可从时态上判断。leave表“离开”时不需再加away。该句可以从“火车正要离开、火车已经离开、火车正徐徐离开”理解。3.选A。nothing but /except=only仅仅,除了……以外什么也没有,只不过。又如:Nothing but miracle can save him.只有出现奇迹才能挽救得了他。4.选A。look, smell作系动词后接形容词。as well“也”。句意为:盘中的鸡肉不仅看起来让人垂涎欲滴,闻起来也让人感到味道好极了。5.选B。come about发生、变化。6.选C。see off送行。7.选A。也同样祝愿对方时在交际英语中常用:The same to you。8.选B。every other day=every two days=every second。9.选C。表将来时用in介词短语,而A、B、D选项用于过去时态。10.选D。价格论高低,物品论贵贱。11.选A。在表示“由……制造”时:be made of (可看出原材料),be made from (看不出原材料),be made into(某物被制造成)。如:These glasses are made of glass.这些玻璃环是用玻璃制造的。=Glass can be made into glasses.玻璃可以被制造成玻璃杯。12.选B。say Hello to sb from sb=give one's regards to sb代某人向……问好。句子后部的时间状语从句用现在时代替将来时,when seeing=when you see。13.选A。由as well as, nothing but, rather than连接的并列名词作主语时,谓语与前面的一致。作“知道;了解”讲,know不用进行时态。14.选D。by the fire在火边。love后可接不定式或者动名词,但本句中与前面的sitting由and连接作并列的宾语。15.选C。tie…to系……到……否定祈使句后的反意疑问句用will you。

 

【创新园地】

  本单元是一篇旅游日记,内容翔实,贴近生活。有不少的表达是测试中必备的。下面请同学们根据提示的情景,用英语写一篇100字左右的有关旅行的短文,不必逐字逐句的翻译,用第一人称的手法写。

  情景提示:平时我乘火车或者汽车旅行,上个周末有幸第一次乘飞机去旅行。开始紧张,随后兴备。置身于高空云雾之中,俯瞰大地、山峦和河川,别有一番情趣。尽管行程短暂,但非常舒适,我觉得乘飞机比乘汔车有趣多了。

 

 

SEFC 1A

 

Unit 4创新园地答案

 

  During the weekend I travelled by air for the first time in my life . I usually travel by train or by bus. It is both cheaper and safer. But to fly in the sky was something new to me . At the beginning I felt a little nervous. But very soon I became excited when I found myself high up in the sky among the clouds. I also found that the mountains, fields, and rivers were interestingly small. I enjoyed my short and comfortable journey very much. After all, it is more interesting to take a plane than to take a car.

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit5.doc

标题 Why do you do that ?

章节 第五单元

关键词

内容

一、 目地与要求:

掌握本单元出现的单词和词组。如:feed, fact, free, fetch, so that, grow up , in fact, be made from, in the past, in order to , wash away, break the rule, stop sb from doing, be covered with, so as to do…;

二、本单元知识重点与难点分析:

1.I'll keep the box in the shade so that the sun doesn't burn the little plants 我会把这个盒子放在阴凉地方,这样太阳就不会把幼苗晒枯。

本句中的so that 作“以便,为了,使能够”解,引导目地状语从句。

例如:He got up early so that he could catch the first bus.

他起床很早以便赶上头班车。

Please speak louder so that everyone can hear you.

请再大声点说,以便大家都能听到你说的话。

I'll put some powder on the soil so that the little plants will grow better.

我会在土上加一些肥粉,以便使幼苗长的更好。

So that也可以引导结果状语从句,主句和从句是原因与结果的关系,作“因此”解,

例如:He often told lies, so that no one believed him.

他常常说谎,因此没有人相信他的话。

He turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the important news.

他把收音机的音量调大了,结果大家都听到这条重要新闻了。

He got up early this morning, so that he caught the first bus.

今天早上他起的很早,因此赶上了头班车。

注意:so that引导目的状语从句时,常用情态动词can, could ,may ,might , will , would和should。而在结果状语从句中,一般不用may, might, should等情态动词,so that前通常有逗号。

2.Then I'll water them to stop the soil getting too dry.

然后,我将给这些幼苗浇水,以免土壤变得太干燥。

本句中stop sth/sb(from) doing sth 作“阻止……做某事”解。句中的“from”在口语中常可省略。类似的词组有“prevent sth/sb(from) doing sth/,“keep sb/sth from doing sth”.意思都是阻止某人做某事。但用keep sb from doing sth时不能省略from.例如:

The heavy rain stopped me (form) coming to attend the meeting yesterday.

昨天那场大雨使我没能来参加那个会议。

How can me stop the sun(from) burning the plants?

我们怎样才能使这些植物不被晒枯呢?

They did what they could to stop the soil from being washed away by water.

他们做了最大的努力,防止土壤被大水冲走。

You must prevent her (from) telling the truth.

你一定要阻止她说话出事实真相。

No one can keep the wheel of history going forward.

没有人能阻止历史的车轮前进。

3.Do you have to feed plants like you feed chickens?

你是必须像喂小鸡那样养育植物吗?

1)feed (fed, fed) vt.(give food to)喂,饲养。例如:

Have the pigs been fed yet?这些猪已经喂过了吗?

What do you feed your dog on? I feed my dog on meat .(=I feed meat to my dog.)

代用什么食物喂你的狗? 我用肉喂我那条狗。

feed…on sth=feed sth to…意思都是“用…来喂养…”但feed on sth的意思是“以…为食”。例如:Cattle feed chiefly on grass.牛主要以草为食。

2)…like you feed chickens.

本句中的like是连词,作“像,同…一样”解,这种用法是一种非正式的美国英语,在正式文体中,还是用“as”为好。

例如:Nobody loves you as/like I do, child.孩子,谁也没有像我这样疼爱你。

She can抰 cook well as her mother does.她烹妊的技术不像她母亲那样好。

4.Or do they grow up by themselves ?还是靠他们自己来生长?

(all) by oneself=alone=on one's own.意思是“独自地,”例如:

He dare not go out at night(all) by himself.晚上,他不敢单独一人出去。

You must finish this experiment (all) by yourself.你必须独自地完成这个试验。

No one can finish this task on his own.没有人能独自一人完成这项任务。

5.It will make the cabbage plants grow big and strong.

它(肥粉)能使白菜秧长得又大又壮。

make sb/sth do sth使…做某事。make后跟不带to的不定式,作宾语补足语。例如:

The boss made them work for him without pay.老板迫使他们无偿为他工作。

They made me repeat the story.他们要我重新叙述了一遍那个故事。

上述例句如果改用被动语态来叙述,则不定式的符号to不能省略。例如:

They were made to work for him without pay.他们被迫为他无偿地劳动。

I was made to repeat the story.我被迫又重新叙述了一遍那个故事。

另:have sb do sth=get sb to do sth=let sb do sth都是“让某人做某事”的意思,没有make sb do sth的语气那样强烈。

6.Like me! 这是承上文来的一种省略的表达。意思是It will make the cabbage plants grow big and strong like me!它(肥粉)将使白菜秧长得像这样粗壮。

Like 在句中是介词,作“像…一样”解。后面跟名词或代词,构成介词短语,在句中作状语,例如:

I want to be a teacher like my father when I grow up.

长大后,我想像我父亲一样作一名教师。

Don't talk to me like that!不要那样对我讲话。

We got on well with each other like old friends.我们之间相处融洽,就像老朋友一样。

7.What has changed in the past few years?.在过去的几年里发生了什么事?

in the past/last few years意思是“在过去的几年里”,句中时态通常用现在完成时。

例如:Great changes have taken place in China in the last ten years.

在过去的十年里(近十年来),中国发生了很大的变化。

The students have already read about twenty English novels in the past three years.パ生们近三年来已经读了大约有二十本英文小说了。

注意:a few 几个,一些(表肯定),few没几个(表否定),但在句中的 the past few years的few之前,不能加a。不能说in the past a few years.这是一个固定搭配用法,在few前有past ,last , every等词时,few前就不能有a.例如:He went to see his father in the hospital every few days.每隔几天,他就到医院去看望他父亲一次。

8.A few of them can be cut each year for firewood. The rest are left to grow even taller.每年可以砍掉一些小树当柴火,其余的就留下来,让它们长得更高大。

1)a few of them相当于some of them,意思是“在…中有一些(人或物)”,表示肯定的意思。而few of them相当于almost none of them意思是“在……中没有几个(人或物)”,表示否定的意思。后面都跟复数的可数名词,例如:

I know a few of these people.这些人当中我认识几位。

I know few of these people.这些人当中没几个我认识的。

I met a few of my old friends there.我在那见到了几位老朋友。

I met few of my old friends there.我在那里没有见到几个老朋友。

the rest意思是“其余的;其它的”当它作主语时,谓语动词应视情况而定;它代替的是不可数名词要用动词单数形式,如代替的是可数名词的复数形式则应用动词的复数形式。例如:

I will take two and the rest are yours.我拿这两个,剩下的都是你的。

Take what you want and throw the rest away.把你所要的拿去,其余的切掉。

Pour me a glass of water and the rest is yours.给我倒一杯水,剩下的是你的。

About one third of the students in our class are from Beijing and the rest are from Shanghai and Tienjing.我们班大约三分之一的学生是北京人,其余的来自于上海和天津。9.People had to walk many kilometers in order to fetch wood.村民们为了砍柴要走很多公里的路程。

fetch的意思是“去取来”,“去把…拿来”,(go for and bring back sb/sth)接来(人),取来(物),

例如:Will you please fetch me a cup of tea?请你给我拿杯茶来好吗?You'd better fetch a doctor at once.你最好立刻去请一位医生来。Please fetch the children from school.请到学校去把孩子们接来。

Shall I fetch you your hat from the next room?要我去隔壁房间把你的帽子拿来吗?

注意bring, take, carry和fetch的不同含义。bring是“带来”;take是“拿去”、“带去”;carry是“携带”,既可是“带去”,也可是“带来”,没有方向性;fetch是“去拿来”,包含一去一来的意思。表示既去取又拿回的两上动作。例如:Please bring your dictionary here next time when you come to school.

请你下次来上学时,把字典带来。

Remember to take your school bag with you when you go to school.

记住去上学时,带着你的书包。

She never carries any money on her.她身上从不带钱。

Please fetch me some chalk from my office.请去办公室给我拿几支粉笔来。

10.Trees were cut but none were planted.(过去)只砍树不植树。

none是代词,作“一个也没有,没有一个”解。可以指人也可指物,作主语代替可数名词时;谓语动词既可用单数形式,也可用复数形式。但如果none代替不可数名词时,谓语动词只能用单数形式。例如:

None of them has(have) come back yet.他们当中还没有一个人回来。

None of this money is yours.这笔钱没有一点是你的。

I want to drink some water, but there is none in the house.

我想要喝一点点水,但家里一点儿也没有。

None of the answers is (are) correct.这些答案中没有一个是正确的。

11.The villagers did not allow them to do this.村民们没有允许他们这样做。allow sb to do sth允许某人做某事。

We do not allow people to smoke in the bus.我们不允许人们在公共汽车里抽烟。

Those books are not allowed to be taken out of the reading room.

这些书是不允许从阅览室里拿走的。

Please allow me to introduce myself to you .充允许我向你们大家做一自我介绍。

12.They began to understand how important the forest is.他们开始懂得森林是多么地重要。

begin to do 也可用begin doing,都是开始做某事的意思。例如:

They began to work as soon as they got there.他们一到了那里就开始工作了。

They began working as soon as they got there.(同上句意思一样)

但在以下三种情况下,begin 的后面通常只用to do sth ,而不用doing sth.

1 表示思维、意识活动;

2 表示自然现象;

3 begin用进行时态时。例如:

Only them did I begin to realize that I was wrong.只是在那时我才意识到我错了。(此句表思维意识活动)

We were about to leave when it began to rain.我们正要动身,这时天开始下起雨来。(自然现象)

When I got to the classroom, professor Wang was beginning to teach the lesson.

当我到了教室的时候,王教授就要开始上课了。

13.Today there is a forest programme in 70villages in this area. Meetings are held in order to explain the programme to the villagers.目前这个地区的70个村庄有一项造林计划,他们开会向村民们宣讲这个计划。

1)programmer也可拼作program,意思是“计划,节目,程序”等。例如:

There is an interesting programme on television tonight.今晚有一个很好看的电视节目。

What is the programme for tomorrow?明天计划做什么?

2)explain sth to sb 向某人解释某事。

Please explain to me the meaning of the poem .请给我解释一下这首诗的意思。

The teacher explained the rule to the students.老师向学生解释了这条规则。

14.It is operated by the women of the area .这个计划是由这地区的妇女来完成。

operate可用作及物动词或不及物动词,作“运转、操作、经营、动手术”解,例如:

This machine doesn't operate well.这台机器运转不好。

Do you know how to operate the machine?你知道怎样操作这台机器吗?

The doctors decided to operate on the child at once.

医生们决定立刻给这个小孩做手术。(operate on sb为某人做手术)

15.Twice a year, large teams of women plant thousands of trees.

每年有两次,大批大批的妇女栽种成千上万株树。

每年一次once a year(不说one time a year)

每年二次twice a year(不说two times a year)

每年三次three times a year(三次以上用times)

还可以用day, week, month等词替换year, 如once a day一天一次,twice a week一周二次,three times a month每月三次。

17.They also make sure the cows do not knock them down or eat the leaves.

他们(妇女们)还要确保牛群不会撞倒小树,或吃掉树叶。

knock down意思是“撞倒,打倒”,例如:

The taxt knocked the little boy down.出租车把小男孩撞倒了。

He was knocked down by a truck.他被一辆大卡车撞倒了。

He knocked his opponent down.他将他的对手击倒。

18.Anybody who breaks the rule is punished.谁破坏了这个规则,谁就受到惩罚。

1)rule n.(what one must, or must not do in a game, at school, at work,etc.)

作“规则,规定,条例”解 例如:

break a rule破坏规则 carry out a rule.执行规则

work out a rule 制定规则 keep the rule 遵守规则

obey the rule 遵守规则

2)punish v.惩罚、处罚 punishment n.

The teacher punished him for his coming late to school.

因他上学迟到,老师处罚了他。

You were lucky to escape punishment.

你避免了受罚,真幸运。

_

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit5.5.doc

标题 Why do you do that ?

章节 第五单元

关键词 内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

  同学们,你看我们生活的都市,高楼林立,车水马龙,红尘滚滚,扰攘纷纷。只有绿色才能抵消这种种的烦恼与不安,让生活多一点舒适和畅怀。绿色植物可使人心旷神怡,绿色植物可减少二氧化碳,增加氧气,使我们生存环境的空气更加清新。如果我们能在工作或者学习之余培养一点栽花莳草的兴趣和爱好,将脑力劳动和体力劳动相结合,那将大大有益于健康,比吃什么营养补剂都更胜一筹。

  在本单元我们将学习一篇新闻报道,这是一个真实的故事。故事发生在印度北部、喜马拉雅山南麓的一个村庄,记述的是妇女们造林、护林的感人事迹。妇女植树造林看来只是小事一桩,但它有着深远的意义。下面以森林为例来透视植物对我们的作用。

  森林不仅提供木材和其它林副产品,还在维持生态平衡、保护人类周围环境中起重要作用。森林的社会效益,大大超过它的经济效益。森林是陆地最大的生态系统。从面积上农地占陆地面积 9.5% ,森林占29% , 森林占陆地面积最大。在各种生态系统中,绿色植物都进行着光合作用,制造有机养料,把太阳能贮存在有机物中。在这方面,森林也居首位。森林维护生态平衡方面的最大功能是调节气候。森林有增加降水、减轻霜害、减免冰雹等调节气候的功能。此外,森林还具有防风、涵养水源、保持水土不易流失等作用。森林在保护和改善环境方面的作用,主要是制造氧气、净化空气、过滤尘埃、杀灭细菌和消除噪音等。

  作为有理想、有抱负的中学生,学习本单元之后,应该认识到我国地域广阔,发展林业有较为优越的自然条件。但由于历史的原因,我国森林覆盖率只有 12 . 7% ,比世界上许多国家的森林覆盖率都要少。所以防止乱砍乱伐,大力开展植树造林,提高我国的森林覆盖率,是摆在全国人民面前的一项重要任务。

 

【指点迷津】

  A. 单元重点新词透视

  1. sow (sowed , sown /sowed) 播种

   We sowed our vegetable seed yesterday .

   This field was not sown / sowed grain .

  测试要点:在写作和阅读中不要把 sow 与 sew (缝纫) 相混淆。sew 的过去式是 sewed , 过去分词是 sewn / sewed 。

  2. feed (fed , fed ) 喂养;饲养

   The patient can't feed himself yet . 病人还不能自己进食。

   -Alice , you feed the bird today , ?

   -But I fed it yesterday .

  A. do you B. will you C. didn't you D. don't you (答案B)

  Well fed , well bread . 吃得饱,懂礼貌。(谚语)

  测试要点:(1) 作及物动词常用句型:feed + 食用者 + on + sth=feed + sth + to + 食用者 。用介词 on 后的宾语是食用者的生存需要品。

  What do you feed your cat on ?

  The nurse fed these babies on cow's milk .=The nurse fed cow's milk to these babies .

  (2) feed + 食用者 + with + sth 。“用……喂……”,这里用with 表达喂时所用的工具。

  Mother fed her baby with a bowl .

  (3) feed 作不及物动词时的常考搭配是:feed (mainly) on (主要) 以……为食。

  Cattle feed chiefly on grass . 牛主要以草为食。

  3. fetch 去取;去拿

  I asked him to fetch me the evening paper .

  She rose and fetched a chair from the next room .

  Let's go and fetch some water .

  测试要点:区别 fetch ; take ; bring ; carry ; get

  fetch 侧重动作的一去一回。get 侧重从此处去把……找来。carry 侧重肩挑、手提或者车船的拉运。take 侧重从说话处把某物拿走,是 bring 的反义词。bring 侧重把某人或者某物从别的地方到说话处。

  Next time , bring your friends to our party .

  Do take this letter to the post office after work . 下班后务必把这封信送到邮局。

  对比:I will bring my mother back home from hospital this evening .

  今晚我要把母亲从医院里接回家。

  Let's have one more drink , and then I will take you back home .

  我们再喝一杯,然后我就送你回家去。

  Bus No. 18 carried us ti the railway station . 18 号公共汽车把我们送到了火车站。

  Shall I get a doctor for you ?

  Will you please fetch me some water ?

  4. percent=per cent 百分之……;每百中

  I am 100 percent in agreement with you . 我是完全同意。

  12 is 1 % of 1200 . 12 是 1200 的 1 % 。

  测试要点:(1) 增加到 百分之几常用介词 by 表达。

  The number of the students has increased by 15 % . 学生的数目已经增加了 15 % 。

  (2) 百分数作主语,谓语同百分数后 of 短语的宾语相一致。当 of 后的宾语是可数名词复数时谓语用复数,当 of 后的宾语是不可数名词时,谓语用单数。有时谓语的形式还受句尾名词的影响。

  Ten percent of the pupils are from South China . 百分之 10 的学生来自华南。

  对比:Ten percent of the time has been wasted . How he regretted ! 百分之十的时间被浪费掉了。他真后悔。

  This company can only supply 30 percent of what we need . 这个公司只能供给我们需要的 30 % 。

  80 % of the population in China are farmers . 中国 80% 的人口是农民。

  5. operate 实施;负责;动手术;操作;经营

  Do you know how to operate this sewing machine ? 你知道如何操作这台缝纫机吗?

  It is difficult to operate this car . 操作这辆车并不难。

  He operates such a large factory well . 他把这么大的工厂管理得井井有条。

  测试要点:动手术 operate on

  This well-known doctor will operate on the baby's eyes . 这位名医将给那个婴儿做眼部手术。

  6. free 免费的;有空的;自由的

  Are you free this weekend ? 本周末你有空吗?

  测试要点:(1) set free 释放;给以自由

  After many years' struggle , they were set free in the end .

  I hope you will set the poor bird free . 我希望你能放了这只可怜的小鸟。

  (2) free of charge 免费

  You needn't pay for it . It is free (of change . 你不必付款。那是免费供应的。

  7. guide 作动词是“指导;引导”。

  Professor Wang guided him in studying history . 王教授指导他研究历史。

  测试要点:guide 作名词“向导;指南;入门”时,其后面常跟介词 to 。类似的名词还有:key , entrance , note , monument 纪念碑。

  Will you please buy me a guide to English grammar ? 你能给我买本英语语法指南吗?

  Don't lose the keys to our classrooms , will you ? 不要把我们教室门上的钥匙丢了,好吗?

  8. purpose 目的;意图

  What is your purpose in doing this exercise ? 你做这个练习有啥用意 ?

  His purpose in going to the US is to look for his uncle . 他美国之行的目的是找他的舅舅。

  测试要点:(1) “purpose of + 名词”是表达“……的目的”。“purpose + in + doing”是表达“做……的意图或者目的”。

  For what purpose do you want to go to the Great Wall ? 你要去长城的目的是什么?

  (2) on purpose=by design 故意的。by chance=by accident 偶然地

  It is not likely that he did it on purpose . 他不见得是故意做那件时的。

  I am sure that he comes here on purpose to borrow money from me once more . 我敢肯定的是,他来这里是为了再次向我借钱。

 

B. 单元重点词组扫瞄

  1. so that 做连词是“以便;以致”,引导目的或者结果状语从句。当引导的是目的状语从句时,从句中常有情态动词。

  Speak clearly so that we may understand you . 请说清楚点,以便我们能听懂。

  They sent him to a hospital so that his mother would not have to look after him all the time .

  She started early so that she could get there in time .

  测试要点:(1) 辨别 so that 和in order that

  二者都可以表达目的,但在目前的 NMET 测试中仍考查 in order that 可以放在句首 , so that 不能。

  In order that she can catch up with the other students , she studies harder than ever . 为了赶上其他同学,它比以前更加努力学习了。

  He often tells lies , so that no one believes him .

  It was so cold that the river froze .

  对比:We turned the radio up so that everyone might hear the news . 我们把收音机的音量调大,以便大家都能听到新闻。 (目的状语从句)

  We turned the radio up , so that everyone heard the news . 我们把收音机的音量调大了,结果大家都听到了这条新闻。

  (2) so that 表达结果和 “so + 形容词 / 副词 + that ”表达程度有区别。

  He got up early so that he could catch the early bus . (表达目的)

  He got up so late that he missed the bus . (表达结果)

  (3) so that 引起目的状语从句时,so 有时可被省略。引导结果状语从句时, that 可被省略。

  Let's take the front seats (so ) that we can see clearly . (表达目的)

  All possible methods were tried , so (that) they were able to find out which was the best . (表达结果)

  2. grow up 长大

  When you grow up , what are you going to be ? 你长大后想干什么?

  测试要点:区别 grow up ; grow into ; grow out ; grow on / upon ; grow out of

  grow into 成长为;变为。He has grown into a fine young man . 他已成长为一位潇洒的青年。

  grow out 肿胀;膨胀。He had his leg hurt and it began to grow out . 他腿部受了伤,开始肿胀了。

  grow out of 来自于;源于;变得不适合了。His troubles grew out of his carelessness . 他的烦恼来自于他的粗心大意。The boy grew out of this clothes . 这孩子长得衣服都不合身了。

  grow on / upon 逐渐加强;渐渐使人喜欢。 The wish to New York grew upon Miss Green . 格林小姐愈来愈想去纽约了。Football grew on Billy as he grew older . 随着年龄的增长,比利对足球的兴趣愈来愈浓。

  3. in the past 在过去 (注意时态用一般过去时)

  测试要点:区别in the past 与in the past few years , in the last few years , for the  past few years , over the past few years , during the past few years 这些都表达“在过去的几年里”(注意时态用现在完成时)

  What has changed in the past few years ?

  In the past , there were no trees left in or around the village .

  另外注意;at present 在目前;现在。in the future 在将来。

  4. A few of them 他们中的一些

   a few trees 一些树

  注意:a few of the trees 树中的一些

  5. since then 自从那以后(句子常用现在完成时)

  Since then great changes have taken place in China .

  注意:after that time 从那以后 (句子用一般过去时)

  After that time , many changes took place .

  6. knock down 拆掉;撞倒

  He almost knocked the boy down . 他险些把那孩子撞倒。

  测试要点:区别 knock down ; knock into ; knock over ; knock on ; knock out

  kno

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit6.doc

标题 A New Factory

章节 第六单元

关键词

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

本单元围绕在改革开放的中华大地上,一个又一个中外合资企业如雨后般的春笋一样,蓬勃发展,这一切给更多的人提供了就业的机会,人民生活水平日益得到提高。在企业提高效益的同时,也给当地经济的迅猛发展注入了活力。更值得令人骄傲的是,不少产品,如:小汽车、彩电、电冰箱等还通过飞机、轮船打入国际市场,给国家大量创汇。通过学习本单元,同学们会更加珍惜今天,只争朝夕,发奋图强,努力掌握现代化的科学文化知识,让伟大的祖国在21世纪更加美丽、富强。另外注意学习如何使用一般将来时的被动语态,为以后对时态的综合运用打下坚实的基础。

 

【指点迷津】

A.单元重点新词读音归类

(1)[i:]least school-leaver (5)[i]minibus notice province company plenty

(2)[:]certain []certain supply (6)[]minibus company

(3)[ :]port abroad [ ]province job project (7)[ei]raincoat railway training

(4)[u]notice raincoat (8)[ai]supply 对比:[i]company plenty

B.单元重点新词透视

(1)minibus n. 小型公共汽车。mini-是一个前缀,表示“小”,又如:minicab微型出租汽车,minicam小型照相机,minibikini ['mi'ki:ni]超短两截式女游泳衣,miniskirt超短裙,迷你裙,mininum最小量

(2)notice n.布告;通知;注意 如:put up a notice saying“Wet Paint!”立一个“油漆未干”的布告牌/The library will be open only in the afternoon till further notice. 在另行通知以前,图书馆只在下午开放。leave without notice擅自离去,不告而别/take no notice of other’s advice不理会别人的建议

notice作动词用意为“注意;(无意中)注意到;通知”;take notice of(有意)注意到。如I notice that he came earlier. (I notice him come earlier.)我注意到他来得较早。/This plane was noticed to take off at 6 o'clock.这架飞机被通知在6点钟起飞。(本句也可理解为:有人注意到那架飞机是在6点起飞的。)

注意在测试中常把notice(注意到)归类在使役动词的行列,其后用不带to的不定式作宾语表示完成性,用现代在分词作宾语补足语表示进行性,用过去分词作宾语补足语表示被动性。如:

I have noticed the guests come upstairs. 我注意到客人们都已上楼。

I notice the guests going in the direction of the hall.我注意到客人们正朝礼堂方向走去。

I notice the guests shown around our school.我注意到有人领着客人在参观学校。

(3)job n.(可数名词)工作。work n. (不可数名词)工作。如:

The new factory will bring more jobs to our province.那座新工厂将给我省带来更多的就业机会。

She has much work to do this week.本周她有大量的工作要做。

(4)supply vt.供应,供给;提供。supply sth to /for sb=supply sb with sth给某人提供某物。如:The car will be supplied to people all over the country.这些汽车将供应给全国各地的人使用。

The factory supplied us with some parts of the car.那家工厂给我们提供了一些汽车配件。

(5)abroad adv.到国外,在国外;到处,广泛。如:

go abroad出国/ return from abroad从国外回来/The happy news soon got abroad.喜讯很快就传开了。/at home and abroad国内外/So cars will be sent abroad by sea, will they?因此,汽车将由海路销往国外。

注意下列在拼写上容易与abroad混淆的词:aboard上船(上飞机、上火车),board(木版),broad宽广的。

另外,abroad为副词,在动词后不要再加介词等。如:〖错〗live in abroad 〖对〗live abroad。

(6)certain adj.(作定语)某种,某些;一定的。(作表语)确凿的,无疑的;有把握的,可靠的。作代词用,如:

Certain parts of the car, like the lights and the windows, will be supplied by other companies in our province.某些部件,如车灯和车窗将由我们省的其它公司提供。

for a certain reason 为了某种理由

She is certain to do well in the examination. 她这次考试肯定能考好。

Are you certain that you'll get there in time? 你有把握能及时赶到那里吗?

for certain/sure 肯定的,make certain/sure +of; make certain/sure +从句 弄清楚。

Will you please make certain of the meeting? 请你把开会的日期弄清楚好吗?

Please make certain when the train leaves. 请去弄清楚火车什么时候开。

注意在下列句式中certain和sure不能换用:It is certain(不用sure)that two plus two makes four. 2加2得4是确定无疑的。

(7)training n.训练;培训;培养;锻炼。如:training college[英国]师范学院,training school职业学校,training center培训中心

C.单元重点词组扫描

(1)at least=at the least=not less than 至少(反义词组:at most=at the most最多)

He is at least as tall as you. 他至少和你一样高。

注意:not in the least=not at all, not a bit 一点儿也不

(2)spend +钱+on sth/ on doing sth 强调钱花在何处

spend +时间+(in)+-ing 在干……花费时间

spend +钱+for sth 强调钱交换的物品

spend +时间+to do 强调花时间的目的性(该用法不常见)

They will spend almost 100million yuan on Hope Project. 他们要在希望工程上投资一亿元。

He spends a lot of money on helping friends. 他为朋友不惜花钱。

All her wages had been spent for medicine. 他的钱都花在了药上。

The government spent plenty of money to help make the land better. 政府耗费巨资去改良土壤。

(3)by sea=by ship 乘船;由水路

类似表达:by land 从陆路,by e-mail 通过电子邮件,by water 从水路,by post通过邮寄,by air 坐飞机,by taxi 乘出租车,by telephone 用打电话,…… 注意不要在这类词组中加定冠词the。

(4)take a look at=have a look at 看一下,瞧一瞧

(5)begin…with…以/从……开始

Knowledge begins with practice. 认识从实践开始。

Let's began the concert with a piano solo. 让我们以一首钢琴独奏曲开始这次的音乐会。

注意:to begin with=first of all“首先,第一”为固定词组作状语,不要少了to. 如:

To begin with, I have a piece of good news to tell you. 首先,我告诉你们一个好消息。

(6)far away 远离的;遥远的(faraway作“遥远的”的可放所修饰的名词前或者名词后)如:

The factory is far away from the centre of town.该家工厂离市中心很远。

He will be sent to work in a faraway village (a village far away). 他将被派到一个遥远的村庄工作。注意在表示具体的遥远时不要用far。如:

My school is 3,000metres away from Beijing West Railway Station. 我的学校离北京西站有3,000米。

(7)set up (常用于单位、组织等的)建立;创办;支起 如:They will set up a mew training centre. 他们要建一个培训中心。

对比:put up (常用于高耸、具体有形的)建立;贴广告;举起;住宿,等。

More and more chimneys have been put up here.这里一座座烟囱拔地而起。

(8)do a lot of walking走很远的路=walk a long way

(9)take/have a picnic=go on/for a picnic=go picnicking去野炊;去郊游

注意:picnic的过去式和过去分词为picnicked,现在分词为picnicking。

(10)agree on(在日期、条款、协议上)达成共识;商定;决定

对比:agree with同意某人,某物适合某人;在……一致

agree to同意干……;同意某事

What he does does not agree with what he says.他言行不一。

Finally they agreed on the date of the meeting.最后他们就会议的日期达成了一致意见。

Our headteacher has agreed to our plan for the holiday.班主任已同意我们的度假计划。

The verb must agree with its subject in person and number.动词要在人称和数方面与主语保持一致。

Chicken doesn't agree with me.我不爱吃鸡肉。

I agree with you, but I don't agree with he said at the meeting.我同意你的观点,但我不同意他在会上的发言。

(11)go out for a drive. 驾车外出兜风

(12)plenty of=a lot of, lots of 充足的;相当多的;绰绰有余的

注意plenty of可修饰可数名词和不可数名词,用于陈述句,在疑问句中一般用enough,在否定句中用many或者much。小心在plenty of前面没有冠词,不可误记成a plenty of。如:You needn't hurry. There is plenty of time left. 你不必慌忙,剩下的时间很充足。

Taking plenty of exercise every day keeps you healthy. 每天多运动会使你身体健康。

The students will have plenty of magazines to read in holidays. 在假期中学生会有大量的杂志阅读。

(13)at the crossing(of)在……交叉点,在十字路口,在交会处

对比:at the crossroads在十字路口

(14)as soon as possible尽可能快(早)地

注意:该词组中的possible不能换成probable, possibly等。另外小心as…as中间的形容词和副词的变化。

(15)as follows 如下:如同下述

My reasons are as follows. 我的理由如下。

The names of the football team are as follows: Tom, John, Jack… 足球队员的名单如下:汤姆、约翰、杰克……

(16)start like this 可以这样开始

D.大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

(1)How long have you had…? 你已经……多长时间了?如:

How long have you had this car? 你这辆车买多久啦?=When did you buy this car?=How long ago did you buy this car?(因为“买”为非延续动词)

(2)I say, let's… 我是说,咱们去……(I say为播入语)。如:

I say, let's go hunting this weekend, shall we? 喂,咱们本周末去打猎好吗?

(3)We'll meet … 我们在……碰头。如:

At seven o'clock tomorrow morning we'll meet at our school gate and go to visit the Red Star Farm. 明天早上7点钟,我们在学校大门口集合去参观红星农场。

(4)Don't be late! 千万不要迟到。

表达提醒(reminding)时的套用语还有:

Don't you remember me? 难道记不起我吗?

Please don't forget to post the letter for me. 请不要忘记给我发这封信。

Do remember to be on time next time. 千万记住下次要准时。

Be sure to bring your brother with you. 一定要把你弟弟带来。

Be sure not to be late for the ball. 舞会千万不要迟到。

Make sure/certain that lights are turned off. 务必把灯都关掉。

E.单元语法学习目标

复习一般现在时和过去时的被动语态,并学习一般将来时的被动语态。

对比:一般现在时的被动语态→am/is/are/get/become +过去分词

一般过去时的被动语态→was/were/got/became +过去分词

一般将来时的被动语态→shall/will +be +过去分词

例如: A new bridge will be built over the river.

(否定式)Some parts of the car will not be made in this factory.

(疑问式)Where will this book be put?

 

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

观察能力与解题分析

一、提高观察和分析能力,对提高解题能力是非常有帮助的。例如:

1.-- my glasses?

--Yes, I saw them on your bed a minute ago.

A. Do you see B. Had you seen C. Would you see D. Have you seen

【简析】解答此题应注意谈话双方各自的侧重点。不难看出,问话人强调的是现在的结果,而答话人只单纯谈及过去的动作。通过这样分析,就可找出正确答案应该是D。

二、是提高对语境的理解及活用语言的能力。例如:

2. Peter come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.

A. must B. may C. can D. will

【简析】只看前一分句,四个选项都对,看了后一分句“但他还不十分肯定”,可知前面句子表达的是一种可能性,答案是B。

3.-Your phone number again? I quite catch you.

--It's 956844.

A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

【简析】关键信息词是again,它说明电话号码已说过一遍,没有听清,要求对方重说一遍,没有听清的动作发生过了,该用过去时,答案是A。

三、留意习惯表达方式,重视情景会话、培养语言应用能力。例如:

4.-Let me introduce myself. I'm Albert.

-- .

A. What a pleasure B. It's my pleasure C. Pleased to meet you D. I'm very pleased

【简析】介绍后被介绍一方的客套语,英语的习惯表达是:Pleased/Nice/Glad to see/meet you(很高兴能认识你)。如按汉语“幸会”,“很荣幸见到你”等习惯表达,就会误选A、B或D,最佳答案是C。

5.-Don't forget to come to my birthday party romorrow.

-- .

A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't

【简析】祈使句及tomorrow一词表明了将来时,答句也用将来时,故选B。

四、提高对固定搭配的识记与运用能力。

英语的动词、介词和词组等有固定的搭配,是常考的内容。例如:

6.-The light in the office is still on.

--Oh, I forgot .

A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

【简析】forget的搭配有两种情况:后跟不定式一般式,表示将来的动作。后跟动名词表示已发生的动作。“灯还亮着”,就是“忘记去关灯了”,故选C。

7.If no one phone at home, ring me at work.

A. returns B. replies C. answers D. receives

【简析】此题是动宾搭配。“接电话”的英语表达是“answer the phone”,故选C。

五、提高分析句子结构的能力。

有些题目,须根据题干的句法去推理,选出符合结构要求的答案。例如:

8.He asked for the violin.

A. did I pay how much B.I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid

【简析】宾语从句应是陈述句语序,故先排除A、C。又因宾语从句中疑问词(词组)应置于句首,所以选D。

9.She thought I was talking about her daughter. , in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

A. Whom B. Where C. Which D. While

 

【简析】分析题干结构,空格前后都是意思完整的句子,in fact为插入语。前后两句内容表明是对照的并列句,应填表示转折的并列词while“然而”,答案选D。

六、排除干扰项,提高推断能力。

可从人称、数、时态、语态、非谓语形式、语气、语序、名词的数,惯用法,词性、词义、句法等语法范畴去着手排除。排除法适用于任何选择题。例如:

10. from Beijing to London!

A. How long way it is B. What a long way is it

C. How long way is it D. What a long way it is

【简析】way是可数名词,先排除A、C。感叹句的句子结构是陈述句语序,应选D。

11.It's nearly seven o'clock, Jack be here at any moment.

A. must B. need C. should D. can

【简析】从信息词nearly和at any moment可推断出题干意思是:“快七点钟了,杰克一会儿就该到了。”由此可从词义上一次性排除A、B和D。故选C,表示“有可能,应该”。

 

【妙文赏析】

Air is around us. We breathe it to stay alive.

To air a room is to make a room fresh by letting in air. To air clothes is to put them in the open air to make them dry.

Some radio stations are off the air from midnight to 6 a.m. the next day while others are on the air around the clock. Listen, the news is on the air. But the problem is still in the air.

The plural noun form “airs” has a very different meaning. Some give themselves airs after getting some success or by air. They even put on airs with their old friends.

【简析】air作不可数名词是“空气”。air作动词是“使通风:使干燥”。复数airs表示人在态度上显示出的傲慢“架子”。air构成的词组意义别具一格,如:in the open air在室外,off the air停止播音,give oneself airs神气活现,put on airs摆架子,in the air在空气中、悬而未决,on the air在广播。

【译文】

空气与我们形影不离。我们呼吸空气来维持生命。

使房间通风就是让空气进来,令房间空气清新怡人。晾衣服就是把衣服放在室外通风处使之干燥。

有些电台从午夜至第二天上午六时停止播音,另一些电台则连续二十四小时广播。

复数形式的airs(故作姿态)有着完全不同的含义。有些人取得一点成绩或者坐过飞机后就神气活现,他们甚至对老朋友也装腔作势起来。

 

【思维体操】

完形填空

阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从1─25各题所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案。

It was a freezing day, when I picked up a wallet in the street. There was nothing 1 but a letter that was 2 Hellen. On the tom (撕破的) 3 I found the return 4 , so I called information. The operator asked me to 5 on, and she called back on the 6 soon. She told me that Hellen's family had 7 their house years ago. Hellen had to 8 her mother in a nursing home.

I called and found out that Hellen's mother had 9. The woman who answered 10 that Hellen herself was 11 living here.

The director (主任)waited for me at the 12 of the nursing home. I went up to the 3rd 13. Hellen was an old woman with a warm smile and 14 eyes. I told her about 15 the wallet and showed her the letter. She took a deep 16.“Young man,”she said, “this was the 17letter I had written to Mike sixty years ago. I loved him very much. I guess no one ever 18 up to him. I still think of him…”

I thanked Hellen and came back to the director. His secretary looked at the wallet 19 and said, “Hey, that's Mr. Goldstein's. He's always losing it. He's 20 here on the 8th floor. That's his wallet, for 21.We hurried to him and asked 22 he had lost his wallet. Mike felt his back 23 and then said,“Goodness, it's missing.”

When I returned him the wallet and told him where Hellen was, he grew24.“When the letter came,”he said,“my life ended. I never married!”

We took him to Hellen's 25 . They stood, looked at each other for a minute and embraced (拥抱)。

1. A. with B. here C. inside D. outside

2. A. sent for B. written to C. given D. signed(签名)

3. A.. letter B. envelope C. wallet D. surface

4. A. home B. telephone C. date D. address

5. A. hold B. keep C. put D. go

6. A. way B. floor C. line D. time

7. A. bought B. sold C. moved D. built

8. A. carry B. place C. drive D. feed

9. A. left B. disappeared C. remarried D. died

10. A. explained B. thought C. discovered D. considered

11. A. willingly B. still C. now D. then

12. A. door B. house C. office D. end

13. A. storey B. floor C. step D. stair

14. A. rude B. freezing C. friendly D. lively

15. A. opening B. answering C. finding D. searching

16. A. dive B. sight C. bow D. breath

17. A. important B. oldest C. first D. last

18. A. went B. matched (匹配) C. got D. came

19. A. immediately B. clearly C. closely D. exactly

20 A. also B. too C. right D. still

21. A. sure B. pleasure C. help D. interest

22. A. that B. if C. where D. when

23. A. head B. trousers C. clothes D. pocket

24. A. sad B. silent C. pale D. anxious

25. A. floor B. office C. room D. home

参考答案:1─5 C D B D A 6--10 C B B D A 11─15 C A B C C

16--20 D D B C A 21--25 A B D C C

 

三、智能显示

【心中有数】

本单元学习一般将来时的被动语态,其构成方式为:shall / will +be +过去分词。使用中不要和情态动词的被动语态(can / must / need +be +过去分词)相混淆。注意用一般将来时翻译下列句子并由主动语态变为被动语态,注意各种形式的变化。

1.他们将尽快修理我们的小轿车。

They will mend our car as soon as possible.→Our car will be mended as soon as possible (by them).

2.你将不能把这些字典再拿出图书室。

You will not take these dictionaries out of the library again.→These dictionaries won't be taken out of the library again (by you ).

3.我们何时才能完成这么多的家务活。

When shall we finish so much housework?→When will so much housework be finished by us ?

除用“shall / will +be +过去分词”表示将来时的被动语态外,还可用“be to be done, be going to be done, be about to be done”的形式表示。

 

【动脑动手】

1. In some parts of the world, tea with milk and sugar.

A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. will be served

2. I promise that this matter next week.

A. will be taken care B. will take care of well

C. will take good care D. will be taken care of

3. They are beginning the sports meet a wonderful basketball match tomorrow.

A. in B. at C. with D. for

4. How long have you the dictionary?

A. bought B. had C. borrowed D. found

5. We don't agree them the date of the class meeting.

A. with; to B. with; on C. to; to D. to; on

6. Try to be friendly to your classmates as possible.

A. so B. too C. as D. very

7. --What a nice present. Can I have a at it?

--Of course. Here you are.

A. taste B. try C. rest D. look

8. -- will they repair our bikes?

--In an hour.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How fast

9. An exhibition of paintings at the museum next week.

A. are going to hold B. is to be held C. is going to hold D. will hold

10. I still don't believe in ghost (鬼神). I've never seen one.

A. at first B. At the beginning C. At last D. At least

11. -- is it to that city by car?

--60 miles.

A. How long B. How soon C. How far D. How quick

12. A new chemistry lab in our school next month.

A. is going to set up B. will be set up C. is to set up D. is about to be set up

13. -- is the population in you village?

--About two thousand, I think.

A. How much B. How many C. How large D. Whatever

【答案与解析】1.选B。茶里加牛奶和糖只是说明一种日常食用习惯,无将来的含义,故用一般现在时的被动语态。2.选D。从next week可知应是“被照料”,注意固定词组中的介词在变为被动语态时不能省略。3.选C。begin…with…以……开始。4.选B。how long与延续性动词连用,A、C、D都是非延续性动词。5选B。agree with sb on sth在……与某人达成协议。6.选C。不考虑后部的as possible信息提示,其它答案也对,但as…as possible“尽可能……”为固定词组。7.选D。have / take a look at瞧一瞧……8.选C。how soon“过多久以后才……”与表示将来时的in短语搭配。how often对句子中作状语用的always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, now and then, every day, every other week, once a month, every two years, three times an hour等表示频率的次数的副词或词组提问。how long对表示持续的状语提问。如:He had to work for the boss from morning till night→How long did he have to work for the boss? 9.选B。主语是exhibition,下周暗示应用将来时的被动语态。10.选D。前部信息暗示表达“至少”。11.选C。how far对距离提问,从60 miles的距离概念上可以判断出。12.选B。be about to do不与具体的时间状语连用。13.选C。对人口的多少提问用how large或者what。

 

【创新园地】

本单元第24课和P86课后练习中要求学会写通知,并且在第21课中已事先让学生接触通知的基本格式。通知分Notice(书面通知、布告、通告)和Announcement(口头通知)。本单元要求学习书面通知的写法。

Notice是上级对下级、组织对成员部署工作、传达事情、召开会议所使用的文体。Notice一般张贴在布告牌上,或公共场所显眼的地方以达到通告大家的目的。其写法如下:

在通告的正文上方正中的位置写上NOTICE(每个字母都大写以求醒目),出通知的单位写在正文结束的右下角。出通知的日期一般写在正文结束的左下角。出通知的单位和时间也可省略。通知不写称呼,但正文里首先提到被通知的对象。通知也没有结束语。通知的正文是主体部分,包括通知的对象、事由、时间、地点、要求等。Notice语言应力求简洁明了、条理清晰、要求明确。

下面请你按说明的要求写一个通知。

说明:学生会举办英语演讲比赛(English-speaking Contest),请按下列要求写一份100个词左右的通知。通知发出的时间为1999年11月14日。内容要点如下:

1. 比赛目的:提高学生的口语水平

2. 参赛范围:高一学生

3. 报名地点:学生会办公室

4. 报名时间:1999年11月15日

5. 比赛地点:学校礼堂

6. 比赛时间:1999年11月20日

7. 组织单位:学生会

8. 评委与奖励:特邀请5位英语教师担任评委,奖励前3名。

参考:学生会办公室Student Union Office 组织organise 裁判judge

(同学们写完后,可把你的书面表达反馈给我们。)

 

 

高中英语第1册Unit 6

 

《创新园地》答案

NOTICE

In order to improve the students 1 spoken English, an English-speaking Contest among the students of Senior Grade 1 will be held in the school hall at seven p.m. on November 20th, 1999.The contest is organized by the Student Union. Those who would like to take part in it may sign up in the Student Union Office on the 15th November, 1999.Five English teachers will be invited to work as judges. The first three winners will gain prizes. All are welcome to join the contest.

November 14th, 1999

The School Student Union

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit6.6.doc

标题

章节 第六单元

关键词 内容

一、教学目标

⒈ 语言运用:

运用所学语言,学习用英文写通知的形式,完成教科书和练习册中规定的听、说、写的任务。阅读课文“Anew factory”,确切理解,完成有关课文内容的练习,并练习用英文写通知。

⒉ 语法:

复习一般现在时和过去时的被动语态,并学习一般将来时的被动语态。

⒊ 日常交际用语:

How long have you had …?

I say, let's …

We'll meet …

Don't be late.

二 、重点难点分析

⒈How long have you had it ?

How long指行为或状态待续多久,常与延续性动词连用;How soon则为“多久以后,要多长时间才能完成,常用将来时”;How far指“多远”,与移动性动词连用。而与静态动词连用,则用How far away提问;How often“多长时间一次”,对表示频率的时间状语提问,例如:always, often, usually, every other day, once a week等,例:

①How soon will you finish this job ? 你什么时候才能完成这项工作?

②How far did you go ? 你走了多远?

③How far away did you live. 你住的有多远?

④How often do you have an English class ? 你多长时间上一次英语课?

⑤How long have you been in China ? 你在中国多久了?

⒉Can I take a look at it ?

take a look at (have a look at …)看一看,瞧一瞧

由take构成的词组常用的有:take a rest休息一下;take a bath洗澡;talk a walk散步;take a trip旅行;take a nap小睡;take a picnic野餐。例:

①He take a look at me and said nothing. 她看了我一眼,什么也没说。

②Don't you want to take a look at my pictures ? 你难道不想看看我的照片吗?

⒊The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month and a new company has been started. 盖一座新汽车工厂的建议已于上周得到同意,一家新的公司已经开业。

agree一词的用法

▲agree on (upon, about)在某方面或某一点达成协议或取得一致意见。(宾语为表示具体协议的文件计划或行动等)如:

①We haven't agreed on the price of the computer. 就电脑的价格问题,我们还没有达成一致。

②They agreed on that point. 他们在那一点上取得一致意见。

▲agree to … 表示“同意”时,后面的宾语常为下列名词:plan, suggestion, arrangement, proposal, opinion等,如:

①I agree to the plan. 我同意这个计划。

②She agreed to marry him. 她答案嫁给他。

▲agree with … 同意某人或某人说的话 表示“与…一致”,“适合(气候、食物)”

①We all agree with what you say. 我们都同意你的观点。

②I didn't quite agree with you. 我不大赞同你的观点。

③The verb agrees with its subject in number and person. 动词的数和人称与其主语一致。

④This kind of food doesn't agree with me. 这种食品不合我的胃口。

⒋A new factory will be built here.

build, set up, found和put up

▲build“建立、建造、建设”,常指建大东西,如

build a road (house, ship)筑路(造房、造船)

在表示建立一个商店、企业时,也可以用start和open.

Start(open) a factory (shop, business)

▲set up“开办”“创立”,常和表示组织、机构、团体等意义的词连用,与found基本相同。

set up a school (hospital, gonernment)

▲found“兴建”着重找基础,用基金创设

found a city兴建一个城市 found a theory创立一个学说

▲put up着重指建造或搭起一个具有高度的具体物体,在口语中与set up和build相同

put up a tent拾个帐篷

⒌At least 30,000 houses will be built for the workers .

least n.最少(的东西),at(the) least至少 反义词at(the) most

①He is at least as old as you. 他至少和你一样大。

②I have at most 10 days holiday. 我的假最多10天。

⒍The cars will be supplied to people all over the country.

supply n. 供应品 (supplies) v. 供应,提供

▲supply sth. to sb. / supply sb. with sth.

①Books supply us with knowledge.

Books supply knowledge to us. 书本为我们提供知识

②The government will supply the need for more houses.

政府将满足人们对于房屋的需要。

▲a great supply of大量的,be in shont supply缺乏,供应不足

①They cut off all medical supplies. 他们切断了所有的医药供给。

②Next week, we'll be receiving a great supply of food.

下周,我们将收到大量的食物。

⒎spend, cost, take, pay, for, buy … for …

▲spend … on sth. / spend … (in) doing sth. 主语一般是人,表示花钱和时间

①She spent much of her money on clothes.

她在衣服上花了很多钱。

②He spent his spare time (in) helping the poor.

他利用业余时间帮助穷人。

▲cost (cost, cost) 无被动语态,只能用事物的名词或代词作主语,不能用人作主语,表示花费金钱、时间、劳力等。

①How must did the dictionary cost you ? 这本字典多少钱?

②The work cost them much labour. 这件工作花费了他们很大的劳动。

▲take主要指花时间而言。It take sb. Some time to do sth.

①It took me three hours to draw this picture. 画这幅花用了我三个小时。

②How long does it take you to go to school by bike ?

骑车上学,你用多长时间?

▲pay … for … 付钱买,主语必须是人。

①He paid ten dollars for the T-shirt. 他花了10美元买这件T恤。

②How much did you pay the doctor ? 你付给医生多少诊费?

▲buy … for买东西用多少钱

①She bough three jeans for 180 yuan. 她用180元买了3条牛仔裤。

⒏There are plenty of offices, factories …

plenty of大量的,可接可数名词,也可接不可数名词,但只限用于肯定句中,相应的疑问句和否定句分别用enough / many, much等,如:

①I have plenty of books to read on holidays. 我有大量的书在假期里读。

②─Have you enough money for the tickets ? 你们有足够的钱买票吗?

─Yes, we have plenty. 足够了

⒐Not all the parts of the car will be made in the factory. 不是所有的汽车部件都在这家工厂制造。

=some parts of the car will be made in the factory, but some not.

当not与all, both, every, everyone, everything, always等词连用时,表示部分否定“并非都…”

而和no, none, no one, nobody连用时表示全部否定,例如:

①Not everyone likes this book. 并不是每个人都喜欢这本书。

②Not all birds will fly to the south in winter. 在冬季,不是所有的鸟都飞向南方。

③Both of his parents are not teachers. (One of his parents is a teacher, the other one is not.)

④None of them agree with me. 他们都不同意我的观点。

⑤No words can express my thanks to you. 任何语言都不能表达我对您的谢意。

三 、学写通知

书面通知又称通知或布告(notice),是上级对下级,组织对成员部署工作、传达事情,召开会议所使用的一种文体,通告一般张贴在布告牌上,或显眼的地方,通告正文上方的正中位置NOTICE(每个字母都大写),右下角写出通知的单位(也可写在NOTICE的正上方),日期一般写在左下角,单位和日期也可以省略,通知不写称呼,也没有结束语,但在正文里,首先应提到被通知的对象,通知的内容包括对象、事由、时间、地点等,语言应简洁明了,条理清晰,要求明确,特别是时间概念很重要,要写得十分明确。

下面是一个通知的例子:

NOTICE

Students of Grades 1 and 2 will go for an autumn outing on Wednesday, October 25th. Well go to the Great Wall first in the morning and then have lunch there. In the afternoon We'll go to visit the Ming Tombs.

Please bring your lunch and drinks. Wear your sports shoes as we shall do a lot of walking. And bring more clothes, because it is cooler on the Great Wall than here. We'll meet at the school gate at 7:00 on Wednesday morning. Please don't be late.

 

四 、被动语态

被动语态的结构(部分)

时态 被动语态 例句

一般

现在时 助动词be的一般现在时(am/is,are)+动词的过去分词 I'm often asked to answer such a question.

Our classroom is cleaned every week.

一般

过去时 助动词be的过去时(was/were)+动词的过去分词 Nobody was allowed to enter the building.

We were given some gifts.

一般

将来时 助动词be的将来时(will/shall be)+动词的过去分词 Xiao Hong will be looked ofter by Mrs Li.

A new hospital will be built here.

 

五 、典型例题

⒈As we known, knowledge begins _____ practice.

A. with B. from C. through D. by

⒉They're made up their minds to ______ a basketball team _____ .

A. put up, of their own B. build up, of their own one

C. set up, of their own D. made up, of their own

⒊The dictionauy is useful to those who are learning spanish as _____ foneign language.

A. the second B. second C. a second D. his second

⒋The whole morning _____ the windows and the floors tomorrow.

A. shall be spent to wash B. is going to take to wash

C. will spend in washing D. will be spent washing

 

⒌ ______ we've heard!

A. How good news B. What a good news

C. How a good news D. What good news

 

⒍The number of tractors made in factory each year ______ five thousand.

A. has grown B. have grown C. was grown D. have grown to

⒎ ─Do you have _____ time to do the work ?

─No, I don't have _____ time.

A. enough, much B. plenty of, much

C. enough, plenty of D. many, any

 

⒏The factory ____ us _____ some parts of the car.

A. supplies … to B. supplies … for

C. supplies … of D. supplies … with

⒐The naughty boy doesn't _____ much time _____ his homework.

A. spend, on B. take, on C. pay, for D. cost, to

⒑We couldn't eat in a hotel because _____ of us had _____ money on us.

A. all, no B. any, no C. none, any D. no one, any

⒒How long have you _____ this motorbike ?

A. had B. bought C. got D. borrowed

⒓He told me he would not _____for New York until the end of next week.

A. begin B. be going C. be left D. start

⒔Mary had an accident ______ a December afternoon when the road was very icy.

A. in B. at C. on D. during

⒕I don't know _____ she will be here. We've been waiting for long.

A. how often B. how long C. how far D. how soon

⒖Are these machines made ______ Japan ?

A. in B. of C. from D. into

 

答案及解析

1─5 ACCDD 6─10 AADAC 11-15 ADCDA

⒈begin with以…开始 正如大家所知的那样,知识来源于实践的。

⒉ 他们下决心组织一个自己的球队。

⒊the second是特指第二个,隐含条件只有一个且只能有这一个。

a second 是泛指第二个,可以是任何一个被放在第二位的人或物。

这本字典对于那些把西班牙语作为第二外语的人都很有用。

⒌news是不可数名词,一条消息应用a piece of news

⒍The number of表示“…的数目”用单数谓语动词

⒎ 见前讲解8

⒑No one和none都表示一个都没有,但no one只指人不表物,后面不能接of,none既可表人又可表物,通常和of连用。

⒒ 完成时要与连续动词连用

⒓start还有“出发、动身”的意思,再如:

At last the train started.

⒔ 有定语修饰时morning, afternoon, evening前用介词on

⒕ 我不知道他什么时候才能到这儿,我们已经等了很多时间了。

⒖be made in +place由哪制造

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit7.doc

标题 Book One

章节 第七单元

关键词 内容

一、掌握本单元出现的单词和词组:

shake, forever, plate, while, movement, earthquake, gap, scientist, sound like, cut off, stay up, fall off, for a while, as many as等等。

 

二、学会本单元出现的日常交际用语:

Were you in…at the time of…? Sure I was, I’ll never forget that.

What was it like? Very strange. It sounded like… What happened next?

 

三、知识重点与难点分析:

1.What does “quake” mean, as in the word “earthquake”? 像earthquake这个词中的quake是什么意思?as in the word “earthquake” 是一个省略结构,相当于as it (quake) is in the word “earthquake”, as在此句中是连词,作“如”,“像”解。as可以作连词,介词,和关系代词,现将as的用法小结如下:

1)作连词,作“当…的时候”,“一边…一边”解,引导一个时间状语从句。例如:

I saw him as he was getting off the bus. 当他下公共汽车的时候,我看见他了。

As he grew older, he became less active. 当他长大一点儿的时候,他变得不活泼了。

He looked from behind from time to time as he ran. 他一边跑,一边时不时的回头看看。

2)作连词,作“由于”,“因为”解,引导原因状语从句。意思与becanse相近,但因果关系上不如because强烈。多用于句首,相当于since; seeing that, 例如:

As he wasn’t ready in time, we went without him.

由于他没有及时准备好,我们就去了,没有等他。

As you were not there I left a message. 因为你不在那里,我留了个信儿。

As she has been ill perhaps she’ll need some help. 她由于生病可能需要些帮助。

3)作连词,引导方式状语从句,或比较状语从句,作“如”,“像”解,例如:

Please do as I’ve told you to. 请按照我告诉你的那样去做。(方式状语从句)

Leave it as it is. 让它保持原状,不要动它。(方式状语从句)

He isn’t as old as he looks. 他不像看上去的那样老。(比较状语从句)

This box is not so big as you think it is. 这个盒子并没有你想的那么大。(比较状语从句)

4)作连词,引导让步状语从句。作“虽然”,“尽管”解。相当于although。例如:

Young as he is=( Although he is young ), he already knows what career he wants to follow.

他虽然岁数还小,但对要从事的职业已胸有成竹了。

Tired as he was=( Although he was tired ), he still went on working.

他虽然很累了,但他仍继续工作。

Much as I like you=( Although I like you very much ), I will not marry you.

我虽然很喜欢你,但我不愿同你结婚。

5)作介词,意思是“如”,“像”,“作为”等,例如:

They got united as one man. 他们团结得像一个人一样。

I regard him as my best friend. 我把他看作是我最好的朋友。

Why is he dressed as ( like ) a woman? 他为什么打扮得像一个女人?

English is spoken as the first language by most people in Australia.

在澳大利亚,大多数人把英语作为第一语言。

6)作关系代语,引导定语从句,作“正像…一样”解,指主句所表达的整个内容。例如:

Taiwan is a part of China, as is known to all. 人所共知,台湾是中国的一部分。

As we all know, oceans cover more than 70 percent of the earth.

正如我们所知道的那样,海洋覆盖地球70%以上。

2.In an earthquake, the earth shakes. And so do you, if you are afraid, and if the earthquake is a big

one. 在地震时,地球颤动。如果你害怕,并且是大地震,你也会颤动。

And so do you.=And you also shake. 句中so作“也是如此”解。用来表示某人也有前面所说的情况。do代替前面的动词shake,这样可以避免不必要的重复。例如:

“I like playing football.”──“so do I.” “我喜欢踢足球。”──“我也喜欢(踢足球)”

If you can do this work, so do I. (=I can also do this work.)

如果你能做这个工作,我也能做(这个工作)。

注:在 “…and if the earthquake is a big one.” 中的and if之间,可以看作是省略了so do you

这个主句,意即: “You also shake if the earthquake is a big one.”

3.It sounded like a train that was going under my house.

那声音听起来就像我的房子底下有一列火车开过似的。

sound在句中是用作连系动词,作“听起来”解,后面的介词短语“like a train”用作表语。sound后面形容词,名词(代词)或介语短语。例如:

Your explanation sounds reasonable. 你的解释听起来很有道理。

How sweet the music sounds! 这音乐听起来多么悦耳!

Your idea sounds a good one. 你的想法听起来不错。

Her words sound like a poem. 她的话听起来像一首诗一样。

4.I was in the kitchen cooking something and I felt the floor move.

我正在厨房做着饭,觉得地板在移动。

feel在此句中是及物动词,作“感到”解,后跟复合宾语(feel sth do/doing sth)。例如:

We felt the house shake/shaking. 我们感到房子在摇动。

I felt my heart beating fast. 我感到心脏在剧烈地跳动。

He felt himself getting younger and younger. 他感到自己越活越年轻。

She felt something touch her left foot. 她感到有东西碰了她的左脚。

5.And then I watched all the glasses that were on the table fall off onto the floor.

然后我看到桌子上所有的玻璃杯都掉到地板上了。

1)that were on the table是定语从句,修饰先行词glasses,因先行词前有all修饰,所以关系代词通常用that,而不用which。

注意在定词从句中,关系代词指物时,以下三种情况通常只用that,而不用which:

①先行词为everything, all , nothing, anything, little, much等不定代词时;

②先行词被all, no, any, little, much, some等词修饰时;

③先行词被序数词,形容词最高级,the only, the very, the same, the last所修饰时;例如:

Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 看什么事需要我帮你做吗?

I told her all (that) I had done. 我告诉了她我所做的一切。

This is the very book (that) I’ve been looking for for years.

这正是我多年来一直在寻找着的那本书。

The smallest living things that can be seen under a microscope are becteria.

能够在显微镜下看到的最小的生物是细菌。

2)注意句中的“watch all the glasses…fall off…”的结构,watch是及物动词,后跟复合宾语(watch sth do/doing sth)。类似的词组还有,see sth do/doing sth, hear sth do/doing sth, feel sth do/doing sth等。

3)注意句中“…onto the floor”与“on the floor”的区别。前者意思是“到地板上”,而

后者意思是“在地板上”。例如:

He jumped off the boat onto the riverbank. 他从船上跳到了河岸上。

He jumped off the bank onto the boat. 他从岸上跳到了船上。

The house moved and a few pictures fell off the wall onto the floor.

房子晃动了,有几张图片从墙上掉到了地板上。

6.At 5:13 on the morning of April 18th , 1906, … 1906年4月18日早上5点13分…

1)注意英语和汉语在表达时间上的不同之处,汉语是由大到小(年、月、日、时),英语则正好相反。

2)在早上/下午/晚上,用in the morning/afternoon/evening. 但是具体指某一天的早上/下午/晚上,就用介词on,而不用in。例如:

on Sunday evening 在星期日晚上

on a winter morning在一个冬天的早晨

on the afternoon of June 4th 在6月4日下午

7.The number of people who lost homes reached as many as 250,000. 无家可归的人数多达25万人。

as many as意思是“和…一样多”,可译作“多达…”,“…之多”。例如:

The great fire burned down as many as twenty buildings. 那场大火烧毁的建筑物达20栋之多。

As many as 15,000 people have left their homeland. 离开故土的人多达15000人。

类似的结构还有as long as, as high as , as tall as, as wide as等。例如:

This kind of fish can grow as long as 15 feet. 这种鱼可以长到15英尺长。

He can jump as high as 1.8 metres. 他跳高可以跳到1.8米。

8.A wide and busy road which was built like a bridge over another road fell onto the one below.

一条像桥一样建在另一条路上方的宽阔而车辆川流不息的马路坍塌到了下面的路上。

one是代词,在句中代替road,指桥下的那条路。如果是代替复数介数名词,则应用ones。它常用来代替上文提到的某个名词,以避免重复。例如:

I don’t like this hat. Please show me another one.

我不喜欢这顶帽子,请再给我拿一顶看看。(one代替hat)

Which pen is yours, this one, that one or the one on the table?

哪支钢笔是你的,这支,那支,还是桌上的那支?(one代替pen)

Many people were killed in their cars, but a few lucky ones were not hurt.

很多人被压死在自己的汽车里,但也有少数幸运的人没有受伤。(ones代替people)

The question that he asked at the meeting was an easy one.

他在会上提的那个问题,是一个很容易回答的问题。(one代替question)

9.The Pacific plate is moving very slowly-at 5.3 centimetres a year.

太平洋板块移动得很慢--每年才移动5.3公分。

1)句中的介词at表示“速度”,“速率”,作“以…速度”解,相当于介词短语at the speed/rate of… 例如:

The train travels at (the speed/rate of ) 50 miles an hour. 火车以每小时50英里的速度行驶。

If you walk at (the rate/speed of ) 3 miles an hour, it will take you a whole day to get there.

如果你以每小时3英里的速度行走,你将要花一整天的时间才能赶到那里。

2)5.3读作“five point three”;28.9读作“twenty--eight point nine”;76.24读作

“seventy--six point two four”。

10.As a result of the movement of these plates. 由于这些板块的移动。

as a result of…=because of… 作“由于…的结果”解,例如:

He was late as a result of the snow. 由于下雪,他迟到了。

The flight was delayed as a result of fog. 因有雾该航班误点了。

As a result of falling off his bike, he was slightly hurt. 由于从自行车下掉下来,他受了点轻伤。

11.First, it is not a good idea to build houses along the lines where two of the earth’s plates join together. 首先,沿着两个板块相接的地带建房是不可取的。

1)句中“where two of the earth’s plates join together”是定词从句,关系副词where引导一个定词从句,修饰先行词lines。where在定词从句中作地点状语。例如:

Do you know the house where they used to live? 你知道他们过去住过的那栋房子吗?

This is the factory where my father worked ten years ago. 这就是我父亲十年前工作过的那家工厂。

2)句中的it是形式主语,真正的主语是后边的动词不定式短语“to build houses…”。例如:

It is better to build houses on rock not on sand. 最好把房屋建在岩石上,而不要建在沙地上。

It is very important for us to study English well. 对我们来说学好英语是非常重要的。

It is a good habit to get up early in the morning. 早晨早起是个好习惯。

12.Weak buildings will fall down in an earthquake, but strong ones may stay up.

不结实的建筑物在地震中会倒塌,而结实的建筑物则可能安然无事。

stay up (not go to bed; remain in a position where put, built, etc; not fall or sink or be removed )

作“不去睡”,“处于原位不动”,“不倒”,“不被移动”解。例如:

She promised the children they could stay up for their favourite TV programme.

她答应孩子们可以晚点儿睡,看他们最喜爱的电视节目。

Tell the servant to stay up until I get home. 告诉佣人等我回来再睡。

Don’t stay up late at night next time. 下次不要再晚上熬夜了。

The pine trees still stayed up after the storm. 那些松树暴雨过后仍然挺立。

The picture only stayed up a few hours, before it was stolen.

那张画帖上去没几个小时就被人偷走了。

I’m surprised some of the cheap houses stay up at all after the earthquake.

那些质量差的房子地震后仍然没有倒塌,我感到很惊奇。

13.Scientists are afraid that one day an even bigger earthquake will hit the area around San Francisco. 科学家们担心,有一天旧金山一带还会发生更大的地震。

1)one day可以表示(过去)某一天,也可表示(将来)某一天。指几天前的一天也可以用the other day。指将来有一天也可以用some day。例如:

One day, I was about to do some shopping when he telephoned me.

一天,我正要去买东西,他打电话找我。

I hope I will be able to go to Beijing to see him one day.

我希望总有一天我会去北京见他的。

2)hit是及物动词,作“打”,“撞”,“袭击”解,例如:

She hit him on the head with a book. 她用一本书打他的头。

I was hit by a falling stone. 我被一块落下的石块击中了。

Another snowstorm hit North America. 又一场暴风雪袭击了北美。

Television has hit the cinema industry very hard. 电视的出现沉重地打击了电影业。

14.The population in and around San Francisco is now ten times more than it was in 1906.

旧金山市区和郊区的人口现在已比1906年的人口多10倍。(是1906年人口的11倍)

句中的times作“倍数”解,如表示甲比乙大(高,长,宽等)几倍,应在倍数表达形式的后边加比较级形式。如表示甲是乙的几倍大(高,长,宽等)时,应在倍数表达

形式的后边加同级比较形式。试比较:

Line AB is three times longer that CD. AB线段比CD线段长3倍。

Line AB is four times as long as CD. AB线段是CD线段的4倍长。

Your school is twice larger than ours. 你们学校比我们学校大2倍。

Your school is three times as large as ours. 你们学校是我们学校的3倍大。

The train runs at least 6 times as fast as the boat. 火车的速度至少是小船速度的6倍。

The train runs at least 5 times faster than the boat. 火车的速度至少比小船快5倍。

They produced 40% more cotton last year than they did in 1997.

去年他们的棉花产量比1997年的产量增加了百分之四十。

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit7.7.doc

标题 章节 第七单元

关键词 内容

高中英语第 1 册

Unit 7 Earthquakes

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

本单元学习有关地震是怎样形成的、地震的多发区在哪些地区、人类能否预测和遏止地震。现在让我们看一下 1976 年 7 月 28 日凌晨 3 点 42 分的中国河北省发生的 7.8 级的地震吧。

刹那间,惊雷激荡,狂风呼啸,地声嘶鸣,整个华北大地在震颤,百万人口的唐山市顷刻间化为一片废墟。24 万人被夺去生命,16 万人遭受重伤,其死亡人数是日本东京1923年9月1 日的8.2 级大地震的2.4倍。造成直接经济损失 100 亿元以上。这是400 多年来世界地震史上最惨痛的一页。

那么,地震给我们带来了那些思考呢?

思考一:抗震、防震措施不容忽视。对新建工程进行抗震设防;对现有工程进行抗震加固;提高城乡综合抗震能力;加强抗震防灾科研及人才培训;建立防灾减灾网络式管理体制。实现防、抗、救一体化。

思考二:地震的预测学有待提高。地震的预测的准确程度在某种意义上关系着人们的生死命运。目前,美国科学家正试验用电或磁的手段来预测地震,并收到一定的效果。

思考三:人人需要接受安全教育。人人做到既不杞人忧天,又不放松警惕,以科学的方法学会在紧急状态下自救的本领。

思考四:一般来说,靠近板块边界地区的大地震重复周期要比板块内部为短。因为作为岩石圈内构造变形的最主要的力源是板块之间的作用力,是从板块边界向板块内部逐渐减弱的。

因此,通过了解了地震的破坏性之后,同学们会更加发奋学习,立志将来献身于伟大的科学研究事业。

 

【指点迷津】

A. 大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

Asking About the things (问事)

1、Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语 30 句

1) Were you in the village at the time of the earthquake ? 地震时你在村子里吗 ?

2) What's the weather like ? 天气怎么样 ?(用于询问天气、人的外貌、人的品德、人的技能等)

3) What happened next ? 接着发生了什么 ?

4) What do you think of … ?=How do you like … ?=How do you find … ? 你觉得 …… 怎么样 ?(用于询问对人或事物的喜欢程度)

5) Are you afraid ? 你害怕吗 ?

6) How are things there ? 那里情况怎么样 ?

7) What is it about ? 这是关于什么的 ?

8) That's very strange / very interesting / very good / boring / very dull / very valuable / very cheap 。

9) It sounds like thunder and storm . 听起来像电闪雷鸣。

10) Sure I was . I'll never forget that . 当然是的。我终身难忘当时的一幕幕情景。

11) Do you remember to phone him ? 你记住给他打电话了吗 ?

12) You did remember giving him the message , didn't you ? 你记得已经把信儿带给他了,是吧 ?

13) You haven't forgotten , have you ? 你没有忘记,是吧 ?

14) I wonder if you remember my asking for the information . 不知道你是否记得我曾打听过这方面的情况。

15) Do you by any chance remember his telephone number ? 你是不是还记得他的电话号码 ?

16) I remember she wore a green hat that day .

17) As far as I remember , he was born in Canada . 就我所记得, 他生于加拿大。

18) I remember quite clearly / vividly the first day at university . 我还请清楚楚地记得上大学的第一天的情景。

19) I'll always remember the time I visited London .=I will never forget the time I visited London . 我永远忘不了在伦敦访问的时光。

20) That reminds me of the time I studied at Beijing University . 这使我想起我在北京大学学习的时光。

21) As I remember=If I remember it correctly , we sent the package on the 20th . 如果我没有记错的话,我们 20 日就把包裹发出了。

22) I shall always remember your help .

23) Sorry , I forgot to lock the door .

24) I'm afraid I forgot where I put the letter .

25) I can't remember anything about it . 这件时我一点也记不得了。

26) I seem / appear to have forgotten her address . 我似乎忘记了他的地址了。

27) It's funny but all I can remember about her is her fair hair . 奇怪,我只记得她的金色头发。

28) Will you be able to come to the party ? 你能来参加聚会吗 ?

29) Is it possible that he will drop in on us this afternoon ? 他会不会今天下午到我们这里来。

30) It looks as if it might rain later . 看上去好像一会要下雨。

2、 Model Dialogue 交际示范

A

A:Did you listen to the talk last night ?

B:Yes , I did .

A:What was it about ?

B:It was about how to learn English .

A:How did you find the talk ?

B:Very good . It's very useful for us and was the best talk I ever heard . I'll never forget it .

 

B

A:Oh . Tim ! What happened to you ?

B:It isn't anything serious .

A:It's serious enough for you to be in the hospital .

B:Just a little too much smoke . I'll be back home this evening .

A:How did this happen ?

B:I had to go into a house that was on fire . There was someone in it .

A:Did you get him out ?

B:Yes , I got her out . It was a girl .

A:But there was a lot of smoke .

B:Yes , a lot . I had some trouble breathing .

A:What happened next ?

B:They sent me here just for the doctors to take a look at me .

A:It sounds frightening (令人害怕的) . I hope you'll be all right soon .

B:Thank you .

B. 单元重点新词透视

1. quake v. & n. 震动;颤抖,发抖。( earthquake 地震 )

At the sight of blood , she stood there , quaking with fear . 一看到血,她就站在那里,吓得浑身发抖。

The man is quaking with cold . 那个人冻得直发抖。

There was a big earthquake in the Northwest of China yesterday . 昨天中国的西北地区发生了地震。

测试要点:quake with 因……而发抖。这里的with 有时也用 for 代替。

The little girl quaked with fear at the thought of the accident. 小女孩一想到那次事故的事就怕得发抖。

2. shake (shook , shaken) vt. & vi. 摇动,震动,抖动

Shake the bottle before taking the medicine every time . 每次服用这种药之前都要先摇动一下瓶子。

shake one's head over / at sth 对……摇头

Nothing can shake our determination . 什么也动摇不了我们的决心。

测试要点:

(1) 注意该词的过去式和过去分词的表达。

The earthquake shook the building . 地震使楼震动。

He shook leaves from the tree . 他把叶子从树上摇了下来。

To be shaken before taking . (药瓶标签用语) 服前摇匀。

(2) 常用于被动语态中。They were much shaken at / with / by the news . 听到那条消息,他们大为震惊。

shake hands with each other=shake each other's hands=shake each other by the hand 相互握手

Chairman Jiang shook hands with that famous scientist .

(3) 辨析:shake , quake , tremble

shake 表示短促而迅速地上下往来摇动之意。

quake 常含猛烈摇动之意。

tremble 尤指身体因恐惧或汗冷,轻微快速不由自主地颤抖。

His father , who is 90 , says in a trembling voice . 他九十高龄的父亲用颤抖的声音说着。

His felt the ground shaking .

His hands shook constantly .

His voice trembled with excitement .

3. while n. (只用单数) 一会儿;一段时间

after a while 过了一会儿。a short / little while ago=just now 刚才

测试要点:

(1) 当该词与介词 for 搭配时,for 常可以省略不用。

rest for a while 休息一会儿。

Just wait for a while and then I will help you . 等一下,我会来帮助你的。

(2) 作连词引导状语从句,“当……的时候;和……同时”。

Somebody broke in while I were out . (注意本句中的 were 不能用 went 。因为 while 后的动词应是延续性的)

Strike while the iron is hot . (谚语) 趁热打铁。

While I was reading , I fell asleep . 我一面读书,一面就睡着了。

My son kept silent while I was doing some sewing . 我做针线活时,我儿子就在一边默不作声。

(3) 作连词引导让步状语从句。“=though , although 虽然;尽管”。

While she is a top student , , she has some shortcomings . 尽管是个优秀学生,她也有缺点。

While I understand what you say , I can't agree with you . 虽然我理解你的话,但是我不能同意你。

(4) 作连词引导条件状语从句=as / so long as , “只要”。

There will be life while there is water and air . 只要有水和空气,就会有生命。

While there is life there is hope . 只要有生命就有希望。

(5) 作连词表达对比=but ,“而;然而”。

He is a worker while I am a doctor .

Their country has plenty of oil , while yours has none . 他们的国家有丰富石油,然而你们的国家连一点也没有。

Jane was dressed in brown while Mary was dressed in blue .

(6) 固定词组:all the while 始终;一直。at whiles 间或;有时。between whiles 时常。once in a while 偶尔。间或。for a while 暂时;一会儿。be worth (sb's) while + doing / to do 值得(某人)花费时间或精力。

It is worth while seeing the film a second time .=It is worth while to see the film a second time . 再看一次这部电影也值得。

4. sound vi. vt. n. 发出声音;听起来;声音

The “s”in “island”is not sounded . “island”这个词里的“s”不发音。

The bell sounded at 7 o'clock for breakfast . 七点钟时,早饭铃响了。

His voice sounds as if he had a cold . 他的声音听起来好像他感冒了似的。

测试要点:

(1) 该词作系动词用后面跟形容词,不要跟副词。

The price sounds reasonable . 那价格听起来很合理。

That explanation sounds all right . 那种解释听起来是对的。

How sweet the music sounds ! 这音乐听起来真悦耳 !

He sounded frightened . 从他说话的声音可以听出他吓坏了。

It didn't sound like a child of eight talking . 那听起来不像是个十八岁孩子在讲话。

You sounded as if you were on their side .听起来你似乎站在他们那一边。

It sounds like the singing of birds . 听起来像小鸟欢唱。

(2) sound 作形容词是“健康的;健全的;完好的”。

They are children of sound mind and body . 他们是身体健康的孩子。

He fell into a sound sleep .=He was sound asleep . 他熟睡了。

(3) 辨析作名词“声音”的:sound , noise , voice

sound 表示能听见的任何声音,她不强调音响的强弱、是否悦耳、是否清晰、有无意义。因此它不含任何褒贬色彩。

We heard strange sounds in the distance .

Sounds carry well in this hall .

the sounds of breaking plates

noise 通常是指大而令人不快的“噪音”,嘈杂声,喧嚣声等。

The noise of traffic kept him awake all the night . 车马行人的喧嚣声搅得他通宵不能入睡。

There is so much noise in this restaurant that I can hardly hear you talking .

Please don't make so much noise ! 请勿大声喧哗 !

voice 专指人的声音,如说话、唱歌、笑时发出的声音,偶尔也指禽、虫鸣承德声音。

We heard the sound of voices .

I recognized his voice on the phone . 在电话上我辨别出了他声音。

Out from the forest came the voice of the cuckoo . 从树林里传来了杜鹃的叫声。

5. point n. 点。vt. vi. 弄尖;指向;把……对准;文章的要点;分数

Your had better point your pencil with this knife .你最好用这把刀子把你的铅笔削一下。

My teacher always points out and corrects my mistakes whenever I hand in my composition . 每次交的作文,老师总是给我指出错处并加以改正。

We won by five points . 我们以 5 分之差取胜。(即我们赢了 5 分)

This is the point of the article . 这就是本文的要点。

Read 4.7 as “four point seven”. 读4. 7为“四点七”。

In this examination he got 87 points . 此次考试他得了 87 分。

测试要点:

(1) 固定搭配:point out 指出。point to 指向。point at 对准……。

The building points to the east .=The building faces to the east . 这座大楼面朝东。

She pointed her gun at a deer .

(2) There is no point + doing 干……没有用或者意义。

There is no point / good / use quarrelling with them about the rules . 给他们争吵规章制度是没有用的。

6. movement n. 运动;活动

He lay there without any movement . 他躺在那里一动也不动。

测试要点:

(1) 作不可数名词是“运动,活动,动静,移动”,侧重其行动过程,尤其是地点、位置、姿势的变化。

Scientists are studying the movement of planets . 科学家在研究行星的运动。

(2) 作可数名词是“动作,举止”。

His movements are getting slower and slower . 他的行动越来越迟缓了。

The police are paying much attention to his recent movements . 警察正密切关注他近来的行踪。

7. line n . 绳,索,线,生产线,电线,边线,行列。

They have opened a new bus line . 他们开设了一条新汽车线。

There is a line of chairs in front of the classroom . 教室的前面有一排椅子。

测试要点:

固定搭配:be line with 符合;和……一致;排列

His actions were not line with his beliefs . 他的行动和他的信仰不一致。

The road leading to our village is lined with trees . 通向我们村庄的路两旁长着树。

in line 一排,一行,成一直线,整齐。

Boys and girls , please stand in (a) line as quickly as possible . 同学们,请尽快站成一行。

line up 排队,排成一行

We lined up to buy tickets . 我们排队买票。

Please wait in a straight line to get on the train .

every other line 每隔一行。

My son , you should write every other line .

drop sb a few lines 写短信

C. 单元重点词组扫瞄

1. fall off 跌落,掉下

Look ! The girl fell off her bike . 瞧 ! 那女孩从自行车上掉了下来。

The house shook and a few pictures fell off the wall . 房子在晃动,墙上有几幅画震落了下来。

The bridge there is too narrow . People may fall off .

桥太窄,人会掉下去的。

测试要点:能基本应用 fall off (从……落下), fall over(向前跌去), fall down (倒塌), fall out(跌出

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 hihg1 unit8.doc

标题

章节 第八单元

关键词 内容

一、 目的与要求

复习第一至第七单元出现过的语法项目

二、语言运用

运用所学的食物名称及有关“就餐”的日常交际用语,完成教科书和练习册中规定的听、说、写的任务;阅读课文“Food around the world”,深刻理解,完成有关课文内容的练习,并进一步练习定语从句,被动语态及各种动词时态的用法。

 

三、日常交际用语

本单元复习第一至第七单元的交际用语,小结如下:

1.介绍问好

①Hello/Hi. Nice to meet you.

②I’ll introduce you.

③Give one’s regards/best wishes/love to sb.

④I must go/be leaving now.

2.建议要求

①Here are some do’s and don’ts.

②Follow…instructions.

③What about…?

④Make sure that…

⑤Do what he/she tells you to do.

3.请求帮助

①Would you please say that again more slowly?

②Pardon? I’m sorry I know only a little English.

③I don’t quite fllow you.

④How do you pronounce/spell…?

⑤I have some difficulty in doing…

⑥What does…mean?

4.祝愿

①Have a good time.

②Good luck. Have a good tip.

③The same to you.

5.餐桌用语

①Would you like another piece of beancurd?

②How about some more…?

③Just a little, please…

④No, thanks. I’ve had enough.

⑤Help yourself to…

⑥Let me give you…

 

四、重点与难点分析

1.--Would you like another piece of beancurd? --要不要再吃一块豆腐?

--Yes, please. --好的,谢谢。

在口语中Yes常与please连用,“Yes, please”意为“好吧”,与此相反的是“No, thinks”,如:

①--Would you like another glass of juice? --还要一杯果汗吗?

--No, thanks. --不用了,谢谢。

②--Have some more cake, please. --请再吃点蛋糕。

--No, thanks. I’m full/I’ve had enough. --不用了,我已经饱了。

2.What a delicious supper! 多么美味的晚餐啊!

一般情况下三餐前不用冠词,have breakfast, have lunch, have supper吃早、中、晚饭。但当三餐前有定语修饰时,要带冠词,如:

①After a quick breakfast, Mary hurried to school. 匆匆吃过早饭后,Mary赶去上学。

②What a nice dinner we had at your house! 你家的晚饭太可口了!

3.Take turns to offer each other the foods in Part 2 in pairs.

两人一组,轮流请对方吃,第二部分中出现的食物。

△Take turns to do表示轮流做某事。It’s one’s turn to do…表示轮到某人做某事,如:

①They took turns to keep watch. 他们轮流站岗。

②It’s your turn to recite the passage. 轮到你背这篇短文了。

△offer 提供 r.n.提供之物

①He offered 10,000 dollars to help the poor. 他拿出1万美元帮助穷人。

②Could you offer me a cup of coffee, please? 请给我一杯咖啡好吗?

③My sister was offered a good chance to go abroad for further study of English.

我姐姐得到了一个出国深造英语的好机会。

④Would you like to accept the offer? 你愿意接受这个帮助吗?

⑤Thank you for your kind offer of help. 感谢你所提供的帮助。

4.When Christopher Columbus and his friend…, they discovered the plant “corn” there.Discover vt. 发现,看出,指揭示久已存在但从未被人知晓的客观事实,如:

①Many years ago, electricity was discovered. The discovery made people’s life changed a lot. 许多年前人们发现了电,电的发现使人们的生活发生了巨大的变化。

②We have discovered that he is a quite careful in his word. 我们发现他工作很仔细。

另一个动词invent指创造客观世界上从未有过的新事物,词义为“发明”,如:

①The computer was invented after electricity was discovered. It is one of the most

important inventions in the world.

发现了电之后才发明了电脑,电脑的发明是世界上最重要的发明之一。

②Electricity was not discovered by Edison, but he invented the electric light.

电不是爱迪生发现的,但他发明了电灯。

5.…there was not enough room for the population.

那儿已经没有足够大的地方装下这么多人了。

room在这里是一个不可数名词,意为空间,与space相近。

①There is no room left for the newcomer. 新到的人已经没地儿了。

②He took up too much room in our room. 他在我们的房间占了很大的地儿。

6.They needed a plant which didn’t need as much water as rice.

这是一个定语从句,意为:他们需要一种不象稻谷那样需要水的作物。

7.It is a very useful plant that can be prepared in many different ways.

这是一种非常有用的作物,可用许多不同的方法制做成食物。

1) prepare调制

How do you prepare the fish? 你怎么做这鱼?

2) prepare sth. Prepare to do sth. 准备……

①He is preparing his speech for tomorrow’s meeting. 他正在准备明天大会的演讲稿。

②I was about to prepare supper when the bell rang. 我正要做晚饭时门铃响了。

③What are you preparing to offer me? 你准备为我提供点什么?

④He is preparing to go abroad. 他正准备出国。

3) prepare sb. for sth. 使某人对某事有思想准备。

①The teacher is preparing the students for the coming examination.

老师让考生对即将到来的考试做准备。

②We must be prepared for failure again. 我们必须做好再次失败的心理准备。

4) be prepared to do sth. 乐于做某事。

①He’s not prepared to listen to your excuse. 他不乐意听你的解释。

②I’m prepared to help others. 我乐于助人。

8.Sometimes they cook it whole over an open fire.

有时候他们把整只玉米放在露天的火上烧烤。

whole表示“全部”一般不用来修饰复数名词,强调个体的完整。

①They cooked a duck whole over the fire and soon a delicious smell came out.

他们烤了一整只鸭子,很快香味就飘出来了。

②The man ate an egg whole at a time. 那人一次吞下一整个鸡蛋。

注意whole一般放在限定词后面,名词前,而all则放在限定词前面,如:

the whole class(整个班) my whole life(我整个生命)

three whole days(三整天) all my books(我所有的书)

all the students(所有的考生) all three days(三整天)

9.In many parts of the world corn is made into powder.

世界上还有许多地方把玉米磨成粉。

1) be made into意为“原料被加工成了……”

①We can make glass into different kinds of things. 我们可以把玻璃制成各种东西。

2) be made of指“成品是由什么原料制成的”能看出原材料。be made from则看不出原材料。

①Gas is made from coal. 煤气是由煤产生的。

②This kind of wine is made from grape. 这种酒是葡萄制成的。

③The desks are made of wood. 桌子是木头做的。

④The cloth is made of cotton. 这种布是用棉花制成的。

3) be made up of“由…组成”

①The novel is made up of ten parts. 这部小说有十部分组成。

②The sports team is made up of eleven members. 这支队由11人组成。

10.A number of other plants were found in America. 在美洲还发现了许多其他的作物。

A number of表示“很多”,与a lot of用法相同,后面接复数名词,如:

①A number of birds come to KunMing for the winter eveay year.

每年冬天有大量的鸟飞到昆明。

②A number of students are playing on the playground. But I don’t know what the number is.

很多学生在操场上玩,但我不知道有多少人。

the number of表示“…的数目”,谓语动词用单数,如:

③The number of the students in our school has risen this year.

今年我们学校学生的数目上升了。

五、定语从句

1.从定语从句和它修饰的先行词关系来看,有限制性和非限制性定语从句两种。

说 明 例 句

限制性定语从句 限定了先行词的范围和意思,这类从句不能省去。 I’ve found a man who can help you.

我找到了一个能帮助你的人。

Autumn in Beijing is the season which is neither hot not cold.

北京的秋天是不热也不冷的季节。

The factory where he worked was built in 1940.

他工作的那工厂建于1940年。

Is this school the one you visited yesterday?

这是你昨天参观的那所学校吗?

非限制性定语从句 只是对附加词进行补充说明,在意思上相当于一个并列的分句,如果省略,剩下的主句意思仍然清楚。书写时,从句和主句之间要用逗号分开,不能用that引导。 I knocked at the door of the chemist’s, which immediately opened.

我敲了一下药店的门,门很快就开了。

She has a sister, who is a musician.

她有一个是音乐家的姐姐。

They set up a school, where there were lots of students studying.

他们建了一所学校,有许多学生在那儿学习。

 

2.关系代词的用法

关系代词 用 法 例 句

that 做从句的主语或宾语,先行词可以是人也可以是物。 The table that stands over there is made of wood.

那边的桌子是用木头做的。

The book I gave you is well worth reading.

我给你的那本书很值得读。

The man that is talking to my father is my English teacher.

和我父亲谈话的那个人是我的英语老师。

which 做从句的主语或宾语,先行词是表示物的名词或代词。 The school (which) we visited is a famous one in Beijing.

我们参观的那所学校是北京的一所名校。

She hasn’t got enough money with which to buy the ring. 他没带够买戒指的钱。

who

whom 做从句的主语、宾语,其先行语为表示人的名词或代词。 Do you know the man who often makes speeches here?

你认识那个经常在这儿做演讲的人吗?

Who’s the woman (whom) you just referred to?

刚才你指的是哪个人?

whose 做从句的定语,先行词可以是人也可以是物。 LiMin is the boy whose father is an engineer.

李明这个男孩的爸爸是工程师。

I live in the house whose windows face north.

我住的房子窗子朝北。

3.在介词后的关系代词只能用whom(先行词为人),which(先行词既可是人也可是物)

4.关系副词的用法

关系副词 基本用法 例 句

when 在从句中做时间状语,其先行词为表示时间的名词或代词。 I still remember the day when I joined the Youth League. 我仍然记着入团的那一天。

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

我永远不会忘记在农场工作的那段时光。

when 在从句中做地点状语,先行词为表示地点的名词和代词。 This is the bridge where you took photos.

这座桥是你照像的地方。

why 在从句中做原因状语常与reason连用。 I know the reason why she was angry.

我知道她为什么生气了。

5.定语中只能用that,不能用which的情况

▲被修饰的先行词为不定代词,all, much, something, everything, nothing, anything, none, the one等时,如:

We should do all that is useful to the people. 我们应该做一切有益于人民的事。

Do you mean the one that I bought yesterday? 你指的是我昨天买的吗?

▲先行词被only, any, few, little, no, one of, just, very等修饰时,如:

The only thing that we could do was to wait. 我们唯一能做的是等待。

The is the right person that I’m waiting for. 他就是我等的人。

△先行词被序数词修饰或本身是序数词时,如:

When we talk about WuXi, the first that comes to mind is Tai lake.

当我们谈起无锡时,首先想到的是太湖。

This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. 这是我校本学期放映的第三部片子。

△先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时,如:

The must important thing that should be done is how to stop him from going on.

最重要的是如何阻止他继续下去。

This book is the best one that I’ve read. 这本书是我看过的最好一本。

△如有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用which,另一个关系代词用that,以避免重复。

Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

爱迪生办了一家工厂,生产过去从未见到过的东西。

6.定语从句中只能用which,不能用that的情况

△关系代词前有介词时

A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.

动物园是展览各种动物的乐园。

Is this the room in which Mr White lives?

这就是white先生住的房间吗?

▲which在从句中代替的是前面整个句子的意思时,不能用that

The street hasn’t been cleaned for weeks, which makes it very dirty.

街道好多星期没打扫了,因此整条街很脏。

He takes exercises everyday, which has done a lot of good to his health.

他每天运动,这对他的身体很有好处。

 

六、典型例题

1.--Who do you know the electricity?

--I don’t know who did it. But I know that Thomas Edison the electric lamp.

A. invented; invented B. discovered; invented C. found; found D. discovered; found

2.-- beancurd you’ve cooked!

--It’s very kind of you to say so.

A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice

3.Wood can be made a great number of things. Look, this kind of paper is madewood.

A. into; of B. into; from C. from; into D. of; from

4.--Would you like another piece of cake?

-- .

A. Yes, please B. Yes, thanks C. No, please D. Yes, if you like

5.-- .

--Thank you.

A. Make yourself at home, Eat some fish B. You can eat some more fish by yourself

C. You’re free to eat some fish D. Help yourself to some fish

6.The farmers do their best to the market with enough vegetables.

A. supply B. feed C. prepare D. offer

7. students is more than two thousand in this school.

A. The number of B. A good many C. A number of D. plenty of

8.The car was too 6 people.

A. crowded with B. full of C. filled with D. small to

9.After the new technique introduced, the factory produced tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as

10.--Do you think I could borrow your dictionary?

-- .

A. Yes, you may borrow B. Yes, you could C. Yes, go on D. Yes, help youself

答案:1--5.B、D、B、A、D 6--10.A、A、A、C、D

8.这辆车坐6个人太挤了,be crowded with意为“拥挤”

9.工厂引进新的技术之后,1988年生产的拖拉机是去年的2倍

10.“help yourself ” 除了有“自用食物”的意思外还有“自己动手做”的意思

 

七、语法练习

1.Finally came the day he had to begin his study for the next term.

A. till B. when C. since D. which

2.The train she was travelling was late.

A. by which B. on that C. on which D. /

3.Is some German friends visited last week.

A. this school where B. this school one C. this the school D. this school

4.Is there anyone in your class home is in the country?

A. who’s B. his C. whose D. that

5.He talked about the people and things interested him greatly during his stay here.

A. which B. that C. who D. they

6.This is the only verb can be used in this sentence.

A. that B. which C. it D. /

7.This is just the place I’m longing to visit these days.

A. where B. to which C. / D. to where

8.The house he visited yesterday was the one the great writer lived many years ago.

A. where; where B. which; which C. where; which D. which; where

9.The taxi a truck had knocked last night was destroyed.

A. which B. where C. at which D. into which

10.All is needed is a supply of oil.

A. the thing B. that C. what D. which

答案: 1--5.B、A、C、C、B 6--10.A、C、D、C、B

2.She was travelling by brain. 所以此题应选A。

3.此题考查对先行词的判断能力。“This is the school,” “school ”是先行词。如果没有“the”, “this school ”后面要加“the one ”代替先行词“school”, This school is the one that…

5.当先行词既有人又有物时关系代词用“that”。

7.关系代词在从句中做宾语可以省略。

8.“The house ”在从句中做“visited ”的宾语,“the one ”在从句中做地点状语。

这句话的意思是:他昨天参观的那所房子几年前是一个伟大的作家居住的地方。

9.介词后用which. “knock at ”表示碰撞,昨天晚上一辆出租车被卡车撞坏了。

10.先行词是“All ”,关系代词只能用that。

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 hihg1 unit8.8.doc

标题 Mainly Revision (阶段复习)

Food Around The World (世界上的食物)

章节 第八单元

关键词

内容

Unit 8 Mainly evision (阶段复习)

Food Around The World (世界上的食物)

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

本单元同学们要学习如何用英语表达各种各样的食物名称以及有关“就餐”的日常用语。通过课文阅读“Food Around the World”,了解玉米这种植物是如何传到中国的。中国的许多果子又是如何被引进到世界的其它国度的。下面是一篇有关玉米 (corn)的趣味短文,请你阅读后看看玉米都有那些妙用。

Corn is the American name for maize . America is the biggest producer of corn in the world .

“Sweet corn”is the sweetest corn . Many people like to eat sweet corn on on the cob . Popcorn is a highly popular snack food in America . It is sold at the entrance of every cinema .

There are two expressions that include the word “corn”. A selfish person has little sense of shame about his selfishness as he thinks other people are selfish , too . We call this “measuring another's corn by one's own bushel ”.

An honest person admits the corn frankly if he loses in a game or debate . We think this is a gentlemanly way of talking one's own defeat . (corn 是美语对玉米的叫法。美国是世界上最大的生产国。“甜玉米”是最甜的玉米。许多人喜欢吃甜玉米棒子。爆玉米花在美国是很受欢迎的零食。每家电影院的入口处都能买到它。有两个包含 corn 字的习语。自私的人对自己的自私心缺乏羞愧感,因为他认为别人也是自私的。我们就把这个叫做“以自己的标准衡量他人,即以己度人。一个诚实的人,如果比赛或者辩论失败,就坦诚地认输。我们认为,这样接受失败是有风度的。”)

另外,我们在本单元向大家提供一篇难得的快速提高高考听力技巧的文章和一篇新教材中的习语分类欣赏(上)的文章,相信它们一定会让你大饱眼福。

【指点迷津】

A. 大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

就餐套语 50 句

● Finding a table for dinner (找餐桌)

1. Can we take that table over there ? 我们可以坐那边的那张桌子吗 ?

2. Have you got a table for four ? 你们有供四人用餐的桌子吗?

3. I prefer the one in that quiet corner . 我喜欢在那安静角落里的那张桌子 。

4. Is the table free , waiter ? 服务员,这张桌子空着吗 ?

5. No , this table is too close to the door . I don't like it .

6. This one is good . Let's take it . 这张桌子不错。我们坐这儿吧。

 

● Seating the diner (给就餐者安排座位)

1. Could you follow me , please ? 请随我来。

2. Here is your table . Is itall right ? 这儿是您的桌子。行吗 ?

3. I'm afraid there's no other places free at the moment . 目前恐怕没有别的空位了。

4. I'm sorry , sir , the one by the window has been booked by telephone . Would you like to sit over there near the door ?

5. There's a table for four over there . Would you like it ?

● Asking if the diner is ready to order (询问就餐者是否准备点菜了)

1. Would you like to order now , sir ? 现在您想点菜吗,先生 ?

2. Have you decided what you'd like ? 您决定吃什么菜了吗 ?

3. Are you ready to order , sir ? 您准备点菜了吗 ,先生 ?

4. Can I take your order now ? 现在我可以请您点菜了吗 ?

5. Have you chosen something ? 您选好菜了吗 ?

 

● Asking what the diner would like to have (询问就餐者想吃什么)

1. And what to follow ?接下来要上什么 ?

2. What soup would you prefer ? And what kind of fish do you like ?

3. What would you like to start / begin with ? 您想开始先点些什么 ?

4. Would you care for a drink before you order , sir ? 点菜以前您想喝点饮料吗 ?

5. What dishes would you like ? 您要什么菜 ?

 

● Finding out what the restaurant has today (了解餐馆今天有什么菜肴)

1. Could we have a look at the menu first , please ? 我们先看看菜单好吗 ?

2. What do you have today for breakfast ? 今天早餐你们供应什么 ?

3. What's special for tonight ? 今晚有什么特色菜 ?

4. What else have you got on the menu ? 你们菜单上还有什么别的吗 ?

5. What kind of seafood do you have ? 你们有哪些海味 ?

 

● Ordering a meal (点菜)

1. Get me some chicken salad , please . 请给我来点鸡肉色拉 。

2. Bring me two beers , please . 请来两杯啤酒。

3. Anything is all right with me . I will order the same .

4. I think I'll have soup to start with .

5. It sounds good . I'd like to try the chicken .

● Asking how the diner would like something (询问就餐者对菜肴有什么要求)

1. Do you like your tea strong or weak ? 您喜欢茶浓点还是淡点 ?

2. How would you like them prepared ? 你喜欢菜怎么做 ?

3. Would you like it rare , medium , or well-done ? 您喜欢做得嫩一点,中等程度还是老一点 ?

4. You want it now or after dinner ?

5. How would you like it done ?

● Expressing hospitality (表示殷勤款待)

1. Have some and I'm sure you'll like it .

2. Help yourself to anything you like .

3. Do have some more , there's plenty left . 再吃点吧,还有很多呢。

4. Try some of this , please . 尝尝这个吧。

5. Shall I make you a glass of beer ? 我给你倒一杯啤酒好吗 ?

 

● Responding to hospitality (对殷勤款待的应答)

1. I don't think I could eat another bite . 我想我一口也再吃不下去了。

2. All right , but only a small piece .

3. It's really delicious , but I honestly couldn't eat any more .

4. I've had more than enough .

5. No , thanks . I don't drink any wine .

● Paying the bill (付帐)

1. Can I have the bill , please ? 请把帐单给我好吗 ?

2. It's my treat this time . I'll pay . 这次我请客。我来付。

3. Let's go Dutch this time . 这次我们各付各的。

4. Waiter ! The bill / check , please .

5. Let me pay this time . You can pay next time .

 

B. 单元重点新词透视

1. coffee 咖啡

Which do you like better , tea or coffee ?

How about a cup of coffee ?

测试要点:

(1) coffee 是不可数名词,通过量词可以具体化。如:She made me a cup of coffee . 她给我沏了一杯咖啡。white coffee 加牛奶的咖啡。black coffee 不加牛奶的咖啡。

(2) 目前在口语中直接在coffee后加 -s 表示几杯几杯咖啡。如:Waiter , two coffees , please . 服务员,来两杯咖啡。

2. offer 作动词和名词“提供,提出,奉献,贡献,出价”

It's very kind of you to offer me so much help . 你真好,给我提供了这么多的帮助。

offer sb 100 yuan for the bike 愿以 100 元把这辆自行车买给某人

make an offer of support 表示愿意支持

测试要点:offer to do (主动)提出干……

Each of them offered to be a guide for the blind man .

Finding I was poor at English , Monitor Wang offered to help me with my English .

3. prepare 准备,筹备,调制,配制

They have found a way to prepare them in the form of small tablets . 他们想出办法把它们制成小小的药片。

Mother is busy in preparing a meal for the family . 母亲正为全家人准备饭。

测试要点:

(1) be well prepared for=be well prepared to do 为……做好充分的准备

(2) prepare sb to do=prepare sb for sth 让某人做好……的准备

(3) prepare for 为……做好准备(for 的宾语不一定是准备这一动作的直接承受者)。prepare sth准备……(宾语必须是这一动作的承受者)

The students are preparing their lessons .

The teachers are preparing lessons .

He told them to prepare for the operation at once .

(4) get ready for=get ready to do 准备…… (强调结果)

They are preparing a party . 他们正在准备宴会。

They have got ready for the party . 他们已经为宴会做好了准备。

(5) 我们准备在下星期一开个会。

( 误 )We prepare to have a meeting next Monday .

(对)We plan to (are going to) have a meeting next Monday .

4. room 空间,地方

This desk takes up too much room . 这张桌子太占地方了。

测试要点:

room 做“空间,地方”时是不可数名词。

I haven't much room to move here .

There's room for three more . 还有三个人的位置。

特别注意词组 make room for “为……腾出地方;给……让出时间”。

Would you kindly make room for my friend here ?

More room will have to be made on the programme for these performers . 节目单上一定要给这些演员多留出一些时间。

C. 单元重点词组扫瞄

Lesson 29

1. No , thanks . I've had enough . 谢谢,我已经吃饱了。

2. I'm full , thank you . 谢谢,我吃饱了。

3. take turns to do=take turns + -ing 轮流干……

The three men took turns driving so one would not be so tired .

测试要点:用介词短语表达“轮流”是“in turn=by turns”

4. help oneself to + 食物、香烟等“自用……”

I can help myself , thanks . 我可以自己来,谢谢。

Would you like one ? Help yourself . 你想要一个吗 ?自己动手吧。

测试要点:help sb to 帮某人再弄写菜或倒点酒

Boys , help yourselves to more chicken and fish .

Ton , help yourself to a cigarette .

Manager Zhang , may I help you to some more meat ?

 

Lesson 30

1. make A into B 把 ……制成……

Cotton can be made into cloth . 棉花可以被制成布。

They are making the old kitchen into a little bedroom .

The grapes are made into wine .

2. by 1555=by the year 1555截止到 1555年

3. become crowded (with) 挤满了……

The hall became crowded with villagers .

4. in many different ways 以很多不同的方法

测试要点:对比名词与介词的不同, by this means “用这种方法”,with this method “用这种方法”,( in ) this way “用这种方法”。

5. in the beginning 起初

In the beginning , you will find it very difficult .

In the beginning he wasn't very interested in school , but as time went by he began to enjoy it .

对比:at the beghinning (of)在……开始时

At the beginning of the summer , we are going to Dalian .

6. from one country to another 从一个国家到另一个国家

7. than ever before 比以前任何时候都比较

She now looks much older than ever before .

Because we have airplanes , we can travel from one place to another faster than ever before .

D. 单元语法学习目标

本单元要求复习 unit 1 -- 7 中出现过的主要语法,如:定语从句、被动语态和动词的各种时态。

 

●“介词 + 关系代词”中介词的选用

在学习定语从句时,“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句是一个难点,难在何处?感到茫然的同学主要是不知道该选用什么介词。而介词的选用是有一定规律的,只要掌握了这些规律性的东西,解题就可迎刃而解,举一反三了。

⒈ 看介词与定语从句中有关动词是否有搭配关系。如:

She paid the man from whom she had borrowed some money . (=She paid the man . She had borrowed some money from him . )(注意:borrow sth . from sb . 这一搭配关系)

In the dark street , there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help (NMET 92)(注意:turn to sb . for help 这一搭配关系)

⒉ 看介词与定语从句的先行词是否有搭配关系。如:

The dog died because there was no way in which it could be brought back to the earth .

此句相当于:The dog died . There was no way it could be brought back to earth . (注意:in the way , in this / that way 这一搭配关系)又如:

He will never forget the day on which he joined the Party .(介词 on 与先行词 day 的搭配关系)

⒊ 看介词与定语从句中的形容词是否有搭配关系。如:

China is a large country with a long history of which we are greatly proud .(注意:be / feel proud of 这一习惯搭配)

The two things of which they felt very proud were Jim's gold watch and Della's hair .(1998年上海高考试题)

⒋ 若表示“所有关系”或“整体中的一部分”,则用介词 of 。如:

I live in this room , the window of which faces south . (=I live in this room , whose window faces south . )(表示“所有关系”)

There are over 3,000 workers in that factory , eighty-five percent of whom are women . (=There are … , and eighty-five percent of them are women . 表示“整体中的一部分”)

China has hundreds of islands , the largest of which is Taiwan . (表示“整体中的一部分”)

 

● 定语从句的关联词活用例析

定语从句是中学英语课本中比较复杂的一个语法项目,有些学生对怎样选择关联词不甚清楚,有时会出现错误。现略举几例加以分析说明。先比较下面例句。

1 . I'll never forget the summer holidays (which / that) I spent on the seashore .

我决不会忘记在海滨度过的那个暑假。

2 . I'll never forget the summer holidays when I worked by the seaside .

我决不会忘记在海边工作的那个暑假。

3 . He is going to work on the island which / that needs him most .

他打算到最需要他的那座岛上去工作。

4 . He is going to work on the island where he is most needed .

他打算到那座岛上去工作,那里最需要他。

分析:在例1句子中,关联词 which / that 在从句中作及动动词 spent 的宾语,可省略;在例2句中,关联词 when 在从句中作时间状语;在例3中,关联词 which'that 在从句中作主语,不能省略;在例4句子中,关联词 where 在从句中作地点状语。

结论:定语从句的重点是如何选择关联词(关系代词或关系副词)。若关联词在从句中作状语,就应使用关系副词;否则就应使用关系代记号。关系副词 when , where , why 的使用,并不决定于其先行词是表时间、地点或原因的词,而是取决于关联词在从句中充当哪种语法成分。只有当关联词在从句中作时间、地点或原因状语时,才能分别使用关系副词 when , where , why 或者用 in / at / on which 代替 when , 用 in / at which 代替 where , 用 for which 代替 why;若关联词在从句中作主语、宾语,则应用关系代词 which 或 that。

练习:从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。

1 . I still remember the day ____ I first came to the college .

A . on which B . in which C . at which D . which

2 . They wll never forget the day ____ they got married .

A . that B . which C . in which D . when

3 . He makes good use of the time ____ he can spare .

A . when B . that C . in that D . in which

4 . The factory ____ his mother works is in the east of the city .

A . that B . which C . on which D . where

5 . The place ____ interested me most was the Children's Palace .

A . which B . where C . what D . in which

6 . That is the reason ____he wasn't here yesterday .

A . why B . which C . on which D . in which

7 . That is the reason ____ he can't say .

A . why B . that C . what D . in which

答案与解析:

1 . A on which 可用 when 代替,在定语从句中起时间状语的作用。 2 . D 关系副词 when 在从句中作时间状语,可用 on which 代替。 3 . B 关系代词 that 在定语从中作及物动词 spare 的宾语,可用 which,也可省略。 4 . D 关系副词 where 在从句中作地点状语,可用 in which 代替。 5 . A 关系代词 which 在从中作主语,可用 that 代替。 6 . A 关系副词 why 在从中作原因状语,可用 for which 代替。 7 . B 关系代词 that 在从句中作及物动词 say 的宾语,可用 which 代替,也可省略。

 

● 谈谈被动语态的三种特殊情况

主动语态变被动语态的“三步曲”是:一、将主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语;二、谓语动词改为被动形式;三、如需强调动作的执行者;用介词 by 引出。那么,下面的三个问题也值得我们重视。

一、不可变为被动语态的主动语态

1 . 宾语为抽象名词或处所名词。如:

She always worries about her health . 她总是担心她的健康。

His friends left Beijing by train yesterday . 昨天他的朋友们坐火车离开了北京。

2 . 宾语为反身代词或相互代词。如:

They are teaching themselves English . 他们正在自学英语。

We should learn from each other . 我们应该互相学习。

3 . 宾语为行为者身上的某部位或某器官。如:

At last he put his hands up .

4 . 宾语为表示某组织机构的词组。如:

His father joined the Party two years ago . 他父亲两年前入了党。

5 . 谓语部分为一个不可分割的动词短语。如:

Then he made faces and jumped like a monkey . 接着他做鬼脸并象猴子一样地跳。

二、常用主动语态表示被动意义的动词

英语中有一些动词,常和表示行为方式的状语连用,可以用主动语态表示在逻辑上似乎应该用被动语态表示的概念。如:

This pen writes well . 这笔很好写。

pen (笔) 怎么能自己 write (写)呢 ? 这有点不合逻辑。从语法和逻辑角度看,This pen is written well . 似乎更正确。可英美人很少这样说。他们一般都说 This pen writes well . 他们认为这样更简略、更自然、更合乎习惯。

1 . 这类动词常见的有 open , look , read , write , smell , taste , sound , cook , wash , fill 等。如:The door opens to the south . 这道门是朝南开的。

This kind of cloth washes very well . 这种布很耐洗。

This book sells well . 这书很好销。

2 . 这类动词短语常见的有:take place(=happen) , break out , belong to 等。如:

Great changes have taken place in our country . 我国已发生了巨大的变化。

A fire broke out last night . 昨晚发生了一场火灾。

The books on the desk belong to our teacher . 桌上的书是属于我们老师的。

三、by 短语在被动语态中的省略问题

在被动句中有时用 by 词组,有时不用,这是由多种因素决定的。一般说来,当动作执行者不太清楚,不重要或难以说出时,通常不用 by 词组。但有时为了强调动作执行者或由于上下文和结构上所需则使用 by 词组。

1 . 下列情况下,by 短语不能省略。

①主动语态的主语是句子中的强调成分。如:

Even a child can answer this question . →This question can be answered even by a child .

②省去 by 短语,句子意思不完整或者含糊不清。如:

Miss Gao teaches us English . →We are taught English by Miss Gao .

③主动语态以疑问代词作主语的句子。如:

Who discovered America ? →Who(Whom) was America discover ?

④用英文表达汉语的“被,由,为……所……”等意思。如:

Telephone was invented by Bell .

The boy was beaten by his father .

2 . 下列情况下,by 短语可以省略

①主动语态是“主+谓+宾+状”结构。如:

They completed the building in 1996 . →

The building was completed in 1996 .

②主动语态含有双宾语。如:

He gave me some advice . →

I was given some advice .

Some advice was given (to) me .

③主动语态中含有复合宾语。如:I saw him go downstairs . → He was seen to go downstairs .

④主动语态中含有宾语从句。如:I believe that he will keep his word . → He is believed to keep his word . (=It is believed that he will keep his word . )

●被动含义 主动意义

英语中,我们多用 be +v . -ed 结构来表示被动含义;但有时也可用动词的主动形式来表示被动意义。有主动形式表被动意义是一种特殊的语态现象,常见的有:

一、在动词 need , want , require , bear , deserve 等后常用动名词的主动形式表被意义。例如:

① The civil quality of the whole nation needs improving . 全民族的文化素质需要提高。

② Every truth requires testing through practice . 一切真理都需要经受实践的检验。

③ The river dam wants reinforcing . 这道河堤需要加固。

④ His words won't bear repeating . 他的话不堪重述。

一般地,这些动名词都可用不定式的被动结构来代替。如上述第三例可改为:The river dam wants to be reinforced .

二、在 be worth doing 结构中,用动名词的主动形式表被动意义。例如:

If a thing is worth doing , it should be done well . 值得做的事就一定要做好。

三、有些及物动词在某些特定场合下,常用主动形式表被动含义。这类动词有 write , read , clean , lock , wear , wash , catch , work , cut , draw , start 等。例如:

This kind of cloth cleans easily . 这种布(料)易洗。

This home-made pen writes smoothly . 这支国产笔很好写。

His book does not sell . 他的书没有销路。

Her letter read like this . 她的信是这样写的。

The car can't start . 这辆车开不动(发动不了)。

The recorder won't play . 这台录音机不转了。

四、某些实义动词被当作系动词用时含有被动意义,但不能用被动式。这类动词有 look , sound , feel , taste , smell , keep , stay 等。例如:

You look pale . What's the matter ? 你的脸苍白,是怎么回事 ?

His theory sounds reasonable . 你的理论听起来很有道理。

Good medicine tastes bitter . 良药苦口。

Food can keep fresh in a fridge . 食物在冰箱里能保鲜。

The shop stays open till 8:00 p . m . 这家商店一直要开到晚上八点。

五、在不定式结构中,下列情况要用主动形式表被动含义:

1 . 当不定式的逻辑主语以动作执行者的身份出现在句中时,例如:

Do you have anything to say for yourself before you die ? 你死前有什么话要说吗 ?

The theory is too abstract for a child to understand . 这理论太抽象,孩子不能理解。

2 . 在“be +形容词+ to 不定式”结构中。例如:

He is hard to satisfy . 他很难满足。

I don't think this so-called big movie is terribly interesting to watch . 我认为这部所谓的巨片并不十分好看。

3 . There be 结构中,作定语的不定式多用主动表被动,但也可用被动式,意义上一般无差别。例如:

There is no time to lose / be lost . 没有时间可浪费了。

但当句中主语为 something , anything , nothing 时,作定语的不定式用主动或被动式其含义有区别:

There's nothing to do - I'm bored . 无事可干椢颐频没拧?/P>

There's nothing to be done - I'll have to give it up . 没办法椢抑缓梅牌?/P>

4 . 在 be to blame , be to let 等结构中,不定式的主、被动形式都可表达被动含义。例如:

He is not to blame . 他不该被责备。

Are the cameras to let ? 这些相机出租吗 ?

六、在某些介词后,动名词用主动形式表被动含义。常见介词有 past , beyond , above 等。例如:

The question is beyond / above teenagers understanding . 这个问题还不能被十几岁的孩子理解。

The pain was almost past bearing . 疼痛几乎无法(被)忍受。

最后补充一点。不及物动词没有被动式,这是我们都知道的;可是有的同学由于受汉语思维习惯的影响,常将这样一些词或词组用于被动语态。最易被这样误用的词(组)有 happen , last , spread , end , take place , break out 等。现举几例,以示其正确用法:

The newly - imported foreign film lasts almost three hours . 这部进口的外国影片几乎要放映三个小时。

Great changes have taken place in the whole world since the end of World War Ⅱ . 第二次世界大战结束以来,整个世界已发生了巨大的变化。

The news spread quickly in the town . 消息在城里迅速传开。

 

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

● 定语从句典型错误例析

1. 误:The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put it into my mouth .

正:The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put into my mouth .

析:虽然finger 后省掉了在定语从句中作宾语的关系代词 that / which ,但是定语从句中也不能重复先行词,故 it 多余。

2. 误:Mary was late for the meeting again , that made the manager angry .

正:Mary was late for the meeting again , which made the manager angry .

析:逗号之后不用关系代词 that 引导定语从句,而用 which 引导非限制性定语从句修饰前面整个句子,并在从句中作主语等。

3. 误: The students , many of them are girls , have come back to school .

正: The students , many of whom are girls , have come back to school .

析:介词或介词短语后的定语从句不用关系代词that 。若修饰人时关系代词用 whom,修饰物时关系代词用 which 。如:The knife with which he cut the branch is sharp .

4. 误:Is this farm which you visited last time ?

正:Is this farm the one you visited last time ?

析:上例中 this farm 为主语而非先行词。因此误句缺少表语 the one ,即缺少后面定语从句的先行词。

5. 误:You are the only one of the girls who dance well .

正: You are the only one of the girls who dances well .

析:定语从句部分的谓语形式必须与行词在人称和数上保持一致。上例中先行词 the (only)one 为单数。对比:You are one of the girls who dance well. (先行词为 the girls )

6. 误:I won't forget the time when I spent in the countryside .

正: I won't forget the time I spent in the countryside .

析:先行词 the time 在从句中作动词 spent 的宾语,而非时间状语。因此关系代词which 或that 可省。

7. 误: All what he said is true .

正: All he said is true .

析:先行词为 all 时定语从句用 that 引导,且 that 作宾语时可省,此句相当于主语从句 What he said is true . 但 what 不能引导定语从句。

8. 误:Tom , for whose life had once been very hard , has started a company recently .

正:Tom , for whom life had once been very hard , has started a company recently .

析:定语从句中介词 for 提前,life 应是从句部分的主语。若先行词置于从句中应为 Life had once been very hard for Tom .

9. 误: There are a lot of people plant trees there .

正:There are a lot of people who plant trees there .

析:主句为 There are a lot of people .先行词 people 在定语从句中做主语,故从句部分缺少关系代词。

10. 误:I often go to the street which she lives .

正:I often go to the street where she lives .

析:定语从句中的谓语动词 live 是不及物动词,因此先行词 street 在从句中应作地点状语而非宾语,应用关系副词 where 引导从句,相当于 in which .

【妙文赏析】

阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从1~25各题所给的四个选项中,选出一个最佳答案。

“Unless I get a rise , I'll have to talk with the (1) , Henry Manley , ”George Strong said to himself . George liked his job and e liked the town (2) he lived , (3) his wife kept telling him that his pay was not enough to (4) the needs of the family . That was (5) he was thinking of taking a job in Birmingham , a nearby city about 50 miles (6) . He had been offered a (7) in a factory there , and the pay was far away .

George lived in Wyeford , a medium-sized town . He (8) liked the place and didn't like the(9) of moving somewhere else , but if he took the job in Birmingham , he (10) move his family there .

Henry Manley was the manager of a small (11) producing electric motors . The company was (12) deep trouble because , among other reasons , the Japanese were (13) such things (14) very low prices . (15) , Manley had to (16) his own prices and profits(利润) as well (17) he would not get any (18) at al . Even then , orders were sill not coming in fast enough , so that there was no money for (19) for his workers . Somehow , he had to struggle along and keep his best (20) as well . He sighed (叹息) . Just then the phone rang .

His secretary told him that George Strong wanted to see him as soon as possible . Manley (21) again . He could guess (22) it was about . Strong was a very young engineer (23) had no future (24) it could attract and keep men like him . Manley rubbed his forehead ; his problems seemed (25) .

1 . A . worker B . boss C . secretary D . engineer

2 . A . where B . how C . which D . why

3 . A . and B . so C . therefore D . but

4 . A . support B . spend C . meet D . have

5 . A . why B . how C . what D . where

6 . A . far B . faraway C . away D . far away

7 . A . car B . telephone C . house D . job

8 . A . partly B . really C . hardly D . somewhat

9 . A . fact B . idea C . suggestion D . plan

10 .A. will have to B . had to C . would have to D . have to

11 . A . store B . company C . town D . place

12 . A . at B . in C . with D . for

13. A. collecting B . buying C . seeking D . selling

14 . A . in B . with C . for D . at

15.A. As a result B . Above all C . In return D . At first

16 . A . improve B . cut C . raise D . keep

17. A . therefore B . however C . otherwise D . and so

18 . A . money B . orders C . profit D . reward

19 . A . pays B . improvement C . raises D . rise

20 . A . workers B . secretary C . machines D . products

21 . A . smiled B . sighed C . rang D . thought

22 . A . how B . that C . what D . who

23 . A . George B . Manley C . The factory D . The company

24 . A . unless B. until C . if D . even if

25 . A . over B . finished C . endless D . settled

〖答案与赏析〗1 . B 见文中第三段第一句。 2 . A where 在此引导定语从句,相当于 in which 作状语,故选 A。 3 . D 据文章意思这里表转折。 4 . C meet ,意为“满足”,常与 needs 搭配使用,meet the needs of 是“满足……的需要”之意。A . support(支撑)、B . spend(花费)、D . have(拥有)都不合题意。 5 . A 这里表原因。 6 . C A、B、D三个选项中的词均不可与数字连用。 7 . D 由文意决定。8 . B 不想搬家正是因为 George 确实喜欢这个地方。 9 . B 该句是说 George 不喜欢这一想法,这里并不涉及别人的建议问题,故C不对。A、D也不合题意。 10 . C 该句是虚拟语气,表示对将来的一种假设,故主句该用 would have to。 11 . B 下句有揭示。 12 . B in (deep) trouble 是固定搭配,意为“处于困境中”。 13 . D 这家公司的电动机之所以不好销是由于日本人正在以低价销售这种产品的原因所致,A、B、C不合题意。 14 . D (sell) at low prices 或(sell) at a low price 为固定搭配,意为“以低价(出售)”。 15 . A 此处表结果。其它三个选项不符合逻辑。 16 . B 这里指“降低价格”,符合题意,A、C、D与题意不符。 17 . C therefore(因此)、however(然而)、and so(表递进),均不合题意,故选 otherwise “否则;要不然的话”。 18 . B 下句有提示。 19 . C 据文章的意思公司是没钱给工人提高工资,而并非连工资都发不下来。 20 . A 要想使公司能正常维持下去,Manley 就必须设法留住最好的工人,后文提到的 George 就是一例。 21 . B 据上下文情景及 again 一词推断。 22 . C what 引导宾语从句,并指代 Strong 所想和 Manley 谈话的内容,语法上做介词 about 的宾语,A、B 项均不能做 about 的宾语,D意思不对。 23 . D 留不住像 George 这样的好工人,当然首先是公司的前景不妙,且文章第三段第一、二句提示有 the company,故A、B、C项均不合题意。 24 . A unless 表条件,意为“除非……”,在此符合题意。 25 . C 接踵而至的问题,自然让人感到 Manley 的麻烦似乎没完没了,A、B、D项意思正好相反,故均不合题意。

 

【思维体操】

下面是有关新教材中的习语,它们在阅读中具有重要作用,请同学们根据注释理解所给例句的汉语意思。

颜 色 类

1. be black and blue ---- be covered with bruises 浑身青紫,遍体鳞伤:

It was the first time I had ridden a horse and I was black and blue after it.

2. in black and white ---- written down 白纸写黑字;写下来:

Please don't think I mistrust you, but I would prefer to have our agreement in black and white.

3. give someone a black look ---- look angrily at sb 怒视某人:

He gave me such a black look that I decided not to mention the subject again.

4. feel blue ---- feel sad, feel miserable 忧郁的,沮丧的,烦闷的:

If you're feeling blue, a couple of drinks may cheer you up.

5. out of the blue ---- unexpectedly 意外的,突然地:

The news of her marriage came out of the blue.

6. have green fingers ---- be good at gardening 擅长园艺:

I can't tell an apple tree from a pear tree, but my wife has very green fingers.

7. be green ---- inexperienced ;easily deceived 无经验的,易受骗的:

He's still rather green, but a couple of years in the army will make him wiser.

8. be/go grey ---- be/become grey-haired 头发变灰白:

Although still young, he is going very grey.

9. be in the pink ---- be very well in health 非常健康:

I'm in the pink, and hope you are too.

10. be/go purple with rage ---- be/become extremely angry 气得脸色发紫;极其生气:

When I asked him to pay me what he owed ,he went purple with rage.

11. go red ---- blush 脸红,害臊:

When asked to recite her poem, the girl went red and could not say a word.

12. see red ---- lose control of oneself through anger 气得眼睛都红了;怒不可遏:

When she sees her cat being ill treated, she sees red.

13. be in the red ---- owe money, especially to a bank 有赤字; 负有债务,亏空:

Sales began to drop and the company was soon in the red.

14. get out of the red ---- get out of debt to a bank 不再欠(银行的)债,不再亏空:

I only need $1000 to get out of the red.

15. catch someone red-handed ---- catch someone in the act of committing a crime (犯罪时)当场捉住,当场捕获:

The shop detective caught him red-handed as he was slipping a packet of cigarettes into his pocket.

16. be/go white ---- be/ become pale in the face with fear 吓得脸色苍白:

When the police arrived he went white and looked around for a way to escape.

17. as white as a sheet/ghost --- very pale in the face 脸色苍白:

The injured man lay on the ground, as white as a sheet.

18. tell a white lie -- tell a lie which is regarded as harmless and excusable 讲不怀恶意的谎言:

I didn't want to offend him ,so I told a white lie and said I didn't know.

19. be yellow ---- not brave 胆小的,卑怯的:

The serfs were too yellow to stand up and fight.

20. in a brown study ---- thinking deeply 沉思冥想:

He heard bad news this morning and he's been in a brown study all day.

动物、昆虫、鸟、鱼类

1. as quiet as a mouse----very quiet ,silent 一声不响;非常安静:

He sat as quiet as a mouse and listened to her story.

2. as busy as a bee----very busy 非常忙碌;

Whenever she has guests for dinner ,she's as busy as a bee all day.

3. as brave as a lion----very brave 勇猛如狮;非常勇敢:

He may be small and not very strong ,but he's as brave as a lion.

4. as proud as a peacock----very proud 非常高傲:

The boy was as proud as a peacock when he showed me his new football boots.

5. a wolf in sheep's clothing---- a person who seems a friend but is really an enemy; a person who disguises his real intentions 披着羊皮的豺狼;伪装友善的敌人:

Don't listen to his soft words; he's a wolf in sheep's clothing.

6. smell a rat ---- suspect that something is wrong 感到有可疑之处,觉得事情不妙:

Hs spoke very persuasively but I smelled a rat and refused his offer.

7. make an ass of oneself----seem foolish, behave so that one is laughed at 做傻事,使自己出洋相:

He was not used to public speaking and made a complete ass of himself.

8. make a pig of oneself----eat or drink one's fill吃(喝)个够:

We made pigs of ourselves on her cakes.

9. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush --- something is worth more than a risk which might be profitable 双鸟在林不如 一鸟在手;

If you invest this money you might make a fortune; but a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

10. kill two birds with one stone ----achieve two aims at once 一箭双雕;一举两得:

I killed two birds with one stone by going to the bank on my way to the shops.

11. rain cats and dogs ---- rain very hard 大雨滂沱,下倾盆大雨:

It rained cats and dogs all day and we could not go out.

12. a cat-and-dog life ---- (husband and wife) a life full of quarrels (指夫妇)象猫狗一样不和的生活;过着经常争吵的生活:

They have led a cat-and- dog life ever since they were married.

(注意:lead/live a dog's life-- live a miserable life 过着牛马不如的日子,过着悲惨地的日子)

13. count one's chickens before they are hatched ---- be over-confident of success 蛋未孵,先取雏;过早乐观:

You think you have won the election, but don't count your chickens before they are hatched.

14. as blind as a bat ---- having very poor eyesight 瞎得象蝙蝠 一样;眼力不行的;

Without my glasses I'm as blind as a bat.

15. let sleeping dogs lie ---- not disturb someone or something which may give trouble, not to look for trouble 莫

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit10.doc

标题 章节 第十单元

关键词

内容

  一、教学目的

  运用所学语言,围绕体育活动这一题材,完成教科书和练习册中规定的听、说、写的任务。阅读课文“The Olympic Games”,认真理解,并完成有关课文内容的练习。

  二、语法

  熟练who / which / that / whom以及介词 + whom / which引导的定语从句

  三、日常交际用语

  1.谈论爱好

  I quite like football / I like to skate with my friends / I enjoy watching TV .

  I prefer vegetable to meet / My favorite song is “Right here waiting” / what’s your favorite ? / which do you prefer , …or…? / I prefer sth .

  2.劝告、建议、征徇意见

  Better do it later / I think it’s better if you do it later / what about going there by bus ? / I prefer to do…

  How about a cup of coffe ?

  3.请求及应答

  -Would you please let me know your address ? -Sure . No.5 Street .

  -Will you please give me some fish ? -Certainly . / Sure . / No problem .

  四、重点及难点解析

  1.Do you often have sports at school ? 你在学校常做运动吗?

  sport指户外游戏或运动,仅限于体力锻炼,包括娱乐性的及竞赛性的;不以胜负为目的。而game则指有一定规则的,双方竞争的游戏或运动,既可以是体力运动,也可以是脑力劳动,以输赢为主要目的。sports和games都表示“运动会”,但有大、小之分,如school sports(校运会),the Asian Games(亚运会),the Olympic Games(奥运会)

  do / have sports 进行体育活动

  2.Which do you prefer , horse riding or shooting ?

  prefer意为“宁愿要”或“更喜欢”,与“like…better”意思比较接近,但使用不同。prefer后面可以接名词,不定式或Ving形式构成动宾结构,还可以用prefer (doing) sth. to (doing) sth .的句型表示比较级,常用句型如下:

  ▲Prefer A to B . 喜欢A胜于B。相当于like A better than B . to为介词,后面可接名词或动词。

  ①I prefer tea to milk . 我喜欢茶不太喜欢奶。

  ②He told me he preferred the country life to the city life . 他告诉我,和城市生活相比,他更喜欢乡村生活。

  ③Even on holidays , she prefers doing something to doing nothing . 即使在假日里,她也愿意干点什么事,而不愿意闲着。

  ▲Prefer单独使用时,相当于like very much .后面可接名词、代词、不定式。

  ①She preferred to work and live with the common people . 她喜欢工作在普通人中间。

  ②Do you prefer staying with your children on holidays ? 你喜欢和孩子们一起度假吗?

  ▲Prefer to do sth. rather than do . 宁愿做…,也不愿做…。

  ①I preferred to stay behind rather than go with you . 我宁愿留下来不愿和你们去。

  ②She preferred to write to him rather than telephone him . 她宁愿给他写信也不愿给他打电话。

  3.What about wrestling and sailing ? 摔跤和赛舰又怎么样呢?

  What about…? 用作劝告、建议、征询意见的交际用语。作“…怎么样?”或“…怎么办?”解

  ①-What about a cup of coffee ? 来杯咖啡怎么样?

   -Yes , thanks . 好的,谢谢。

  ② “Of coure . I’ll come . What about Wendesday ?”-That’s ok . 我当然要来,星期三怎么样?-“好吧!”

  4.Are you good at sailing ? 你赛舰很行吧?

   be good at + n. / ving . 善于、擅长于

  ①I like physics , but I’m not good at it . 我喜欢物理,但学的不好。

  ②She is good at singing and dancing . 她善于唱歌跳舞。

  5.Would you please let me know when you have a race ? 你们有比赛的时候,请告诉我好吗?

  “Would you please…?” 是表示请求的交际用语。

  ①-Would you please let me know your telephone number ? -请把你的电话号码告诉我好吗?

   -Sure , 12345678 . -好的,12345678。

  ②-I’m leaving this morning : Would you please take a message to Mary ? 我今天上午就要走了,请你给Mary捎个信好吗?

   -Certainly . Please go ahead . 好的,请说吧。

  6.Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games .

  每四年,来自世界各地的运动员都参加奥运会。

  take part in=join in . 参加活动。

  ①All the students in our class took part in the sports meeting which was held in our school every other year . 我们班全体同学都参加了学校每年一次的运动会。

  ②May I join in the Game ? 我可以参加比赛吗?

  积极参与可以说 “take an active part in” “join actively in .”

  join sb. (in) 意为和“某人一起(做)”。而take part in则不能这么用

  ①Will you join us . 你愿意和我一起干吗?

  ②He joined his wife in her study . 他和他妻子一块从事研究。

  7.The old Olympic Games from which the modern games came began around the year 776 Be in Greece . 现代体育运动的起源古奥林匹克运动会大约在公元前776年在希腊首次举行。

  ▲带介词的定语从句可以把介词放在关系代词前,这时关系代词代物只能用which,代人用whom。

  ①The room in which I lived when I was a child is painted by myself .

  我小时候住的那间房子是我自己刷的漆。

  ②The man for whom you are waiting is a cheat .

  你等的人是一个骗子。

  8.Many of the sports were the same as they are now . 许多项目和现在的都一样。

  as的用法。

  ①I have the same idea as yours .

  我的意见和你的一样。

  ②Do you have to feed the plants as we feed chickens ?

  你是像喂鸡那样给植物施肥吗?

  ③You should do everything as your teacher tells you to .

  你应该按老师说的那样去做每一件事。

  ④As she sang , tears ran down her cheeks .

  她唱起来,泪水就伴着歌声顺着脸颊流下来了。

  ⑤As a child , Lincoln used to work hard and help his father on the farm .

  当林肯是个孩子的时候,他就努力工作,并且在农场帮爸爸干活。

  ⑥As we can see , the earth is a huge . water-covered globe .

  就象我们所看到的,地球是一个巨大的被水覆盖的球。

  ⑦You must speak English as often as possible .

  你要尽可能多地说英语。

  ⑧As soon as Mr Li comes , I’ll tell him about it .

  李先生一来,我就告诉他这件事。

  9.The Olympic Games in mordern times happened in 1896 .

  近代第一次奥运会是在1896年举行的。

  times表示“时代,境况”等意义时常用复数形式。

  ①In ancient times people ate meat without cooking it .

  古代人吃生肉。

  ②What wonderful times we live in !

  我们生活在多么了不起的时代啊!

  times还可用来表“次数”。

  ③I have met him several times .

  我见过他好几次。

  10.After that more and more countries joined in the games .

  ▲after that表示在过去某一件事以后,但情况或动作并不延续到说话时,所以句中的谓语动词仍要用一般过去时。

  ①After that he never passed any exam .

  从那以后他任何一门考试都从未及格过。

  ②After that they took more attention to what I said and did .

  从那以后他们对我的一言一行更加关注了。

  ▲more and more表示“越来越…”可表示数量之多,也可表示程度的快速递增。

  ①The park is getting more and more beautiful .

  这个公园变行越来越美了。

  ②Our life is getting better and better .

  我们的生活越来越好。

  11.The Olympic motto is “Swifter , Higher , Stronger .” It means that every athlete should try to run faster , jump higher , and throw further .

  奥林匹克的箴言是:“更快,更高,更强”它意味着每个运动员都应该争取跑得更快,跳得更高,掷得更远。

  12.In Barcelona the Chinese team got 16 gold medals , of which 12 were won by women .

=In Barcelona the Chinese team got 16 gold medals , 12of these 16 gold medals won by women .

  在巴赛罗那,中国队获得了16块金牌,其中12块是女子夺得的。

 

典型例题:

  1.We are going to have a picnic next week . Will you     us ?

  A. take part in B. go in for C. join D. join in

  2.The box is      what I saw in the shop .

  A. some as B. the same like C. the same that D. the same as

  3.Is this the farm      you visited the other day ?

  A. the one B. to which C. that D. on which

  4.The doctor told me to take the medicine      .

  A. every four hours B. four hours each

  C. four each hour D. every fourth hours

  5.Mary is no longer      she was five years ago .

  A. whom B. that C. what D. when

  6.Do you remember there      a river here ?

  A. used to be B. used to being C. was used to being D. was used to be

  7.You may take anything useful      .

  A. which you want B. you want it C. what you want D. you want

  8.-Lock ! Lintao has just jumped over the pole .

   -      .

  A. I don't think so B. It's wonderful C. My pleasure D. Well done

  9.There is      in today’s newspaper .

  A. interesting special nothing B. nothing specially interesting

  C. specially interesting nothing D. nothing special interesting

  10.Every player tried his best to      the game .

  A. win B. catch C. take D. best

  11.English is becoming      .

  A. more importancl and more important . B. more and more important .

  C. importanter and importanter D. important and mone important

  12.People are not allowed      freely at the meeting and they don’t allow either.

  A. to talk ; smoking     B. to talk , to smoke

  C. talking , smoking     D. talking , to smoke

  13.Galileo built a telescope      he could study the skies .

  A. which  B. that  C. with that  D. through which

  14.He is the only one of the teachers      French in our school .

  A. who knows  B. who know  C. that know  D. whose

 

答案与分析:

  1-5 C , D , C , A , C 6-10 A , D , D , B , A 11-14 B , A , D , A

  1.join sb. (in…) 意为“和某人一起”(做某事)Will you join us ? 你愿意和我们一起吗?

  She didn’t join them in their talk . 她没有参加他们的交谈。

  4.医生告诉我每四小时吃一次药。

  5.every two days=every other day=every second day .每2天

  May已不再是5年前的样子了。What原意为the thing which,这里引申为the girl who .

  6.表示过去有应该用there used to be .表示过去经常发生的动作,或存在的状态,而现在已不再发生或存在。如:

  ①He used to get up very late .

  他过去常起得很晚。

  be used to doing sth .意为“习惯于…”;be可用get或become替换。

  ②I wasn’t used to city life , but now I have got used to living in this city .

  我以前不习惯都市生活,但现在已习惯于住在这个城市了。

  be used to do sth . 意为“被用来做…”。如:

  ③Cotton can be used to make cloth .

  棉花可用来制布。

  7.你可以拿走任何你想要的有用的东西。

  9.本题要说明的是形容词修饰不定代词应放在不定代词之后,但当该形容词被副词修饰时,副词仍应放在形容词之前。

  12.be allowed to do sth . / allow doing . 允许做某事。如:

  ①Please allow me to introduce myself first .

  请允许我首先做个自我介绍。

  ②Women are not allowed to take part in the games .

  妇女不允许参加体育运动会。

  ③My parents don’t allow smoking .

  我父母不允许吸烟。

  My parents don’t allow us to smoke .

  我父母不允许我们吸烟。

  13.考察介词的使用。Galileo could study the skies through a telescope .

  14.考察定词从句中主谓一致的问题。He knows French in our school . “Who”代替的是 “He”,所以应该用第三人称单数。

 

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit10.1.doc

标题 Sports (体育运动)

章节 第十单元

关键词

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

在 Sports 这一单元,同学们将充分了解奥林匹克运动会 (the Olympic Games 或者 the Olympics )。当 1896 年的奥运圣火在希腊雅典重新点燃的时候,人们开始认识到,奥林匹克运动在现代社会生活中将越来越显示出它的重要地位和作用。它以竞技的形式,将不同国籍、不同肤色的人民紧紧联系在一起,人们在五环旗下找到了自己的朋友,奥林匹克成为一种公用的世界语言。奥林匹克运动会是由国际奥林匹克委员会举办的多项目的世界综合性运动会,每四年举办一次。

古代奥运会从公元前 776 年在有众神之王宙斯神庙的奥林匹亚村举行到公元 393 年间,共举行过 293 次。393 年罗马帝国入侵希腊后,罗马皇帝狄奥多西下令废止奥运会,并烧毁了运动场建筑。522 和 511 年的两次强烈地震,把奥林匹亚深深埋在地下。从此,奥运会被人民忘记了。1894 年 6 月,34 国在巴黎召开国际体育大会,成立了国际奥林匹克委员会,并定于 1896 年4 月6 日至 15 日在希腊雅典举行一一届现代奥运会。以后每四年举行一次,如因故不能举行,奥运会的届数照算。

现在奥林匹克运动会的比赛项目有:田径、足球、游泳、篮球、排球、曲棍球、体操、射击、举重、自行车、摔跤、柔道、射箭、击剑、手球、网球、乒乓球、羽毛球等以及冬奥运会滑冰、滑雪、冰球、有舵雪橇与无舵雪橇五项和现代冬季两项(滑雪 + 射击)。

奥运会的标志是由五种不同颜色的环圈连接而成,环环相扣,分别代表欧洲(天蓝色)、亚洲(黄色)、非洲(黑色)、澳洲(草绿色)、美洲(红色),象征五大洲的团结;奥运会的会旗以白色为底,以五环为图案,表示所有民族的运动员友谊,公平坦率的竞争。

奥运会的圣火象征光明,古代与现代奥运会薪传不断,在早期的奥运会中,圣火是在奥林匹克法院的奥林匹亚希腊女神赫拉庙旁,用凹面镜聚焦日光点燃,然后通过长途火炬接力,于奥运会开幕的头一天到达举办城市,点燃塔上的火炬,直到奥运会闭幕,塔上的火焰才熄灭。1936年柏林奥运会采用现代圣火,此后沿袭至今。

中国人民对奥林匹克运动有深厚的感情。在前进发展的道路上,我们深刻体会到体育的特殊社会功能,体会到奥林匹克运动是促进和维护人类和平发展的强大动力。奥运会是一项大规模的国际性社会活动,它受到全社会特别是体育爱好者的关注。奥运会不仅对发展体育运动,增进国际间的体育交往起着巨大的促进作用,同时也是增进世界各国文化交流、增强各国人民友谊的桥梁之一。

正如第 38 课中所述:The Olympic motto is “Swifter , Higher , Stronger .”(奥运会的箴言是:更快、更高、更强) It means that every athlete should try to run faster , jump higher and throw further . They do their best to win medals . In 1988 Olympic Games in Barcelona the Chinese team got 16 gold medals , of which 12 were won by women .

在学习本单元之前,我们还应了解中国选手在亚特兰大表现出的震撼人心的英雄主义精神。孙福明赛前就爽快地说:“我来这里就是要金牌的。”王军霞在自己的副项女子 5000 米冲刺中,远远甩下对手,冲向终点,博得观众席上如潮的掌声。

这是一种必胜的信念,必胜的气概 ! 中国人民就有那种战胜一切困难、压倒一切对手的自信。16 个日夜,亿万中国人民同征战亚特兰大的英雄儿女心心相印。在神州大地,为中国体育健儿助威的欢呼犹如滚滚春雷,响彻大江南北,汇成一个强音:“中国队,加油!”人们笑看乒乓四金悉入囊中,人们畅论王军霞健步如飞摘金夺银,人们赞赏年轻的大力士占旭刚一举打破三项世界记录的威猛 …… 那是一种尊严的体验、一种豪情的抒发、一种光荣的分享、一种志气的高扬。体育健儿取得的骄人的战绩和气贯长虹的英雄气概,向世人昭示:一个伟大的民族正在崛起、正在振兴。中国不再是无足轻重的角色,中国人不必仰慕别人的成功,完全可以为自己的光荣感到自豪,中华民族不愧是一个伟大的民族。

中国体育健儿的拼搏,展示了中国人勇于胜利、奋斗不息的精神风貌,证明中华民族不仅在体质上而且在意志品质上十分强健,令人钦佩。“燕台一去客心惊,萧鼓喧喧汉将营。万里寒光生积雪,三边曙色动危旌。”我们可以从女足队员飞身抢断中体会到那种(曙色动危旌)的悲壮,可以从伏明霞惊世的一跳再跳中体会到(寒光生积雪)的险峻,在力量与意志的较量中,不管中国运动员拿到的是金牌、银牌、铜牌,或者没有拿到奖牌,都充分展示了一个民族应有的风范。

作为中学生,应通过学习本单元后从灵魂的深处感触到“自古英雄多磨难,从来纨绔少伟男”。赛场上的辉煌,从来是与艰辛相伴的。没有超人的付出,就没有惊人的收获。要想让祖国的荣誉、人民的期望随国旗高升,随国歌高奏,我们每一个华夏儿女都要有不达目的誓不罢休的拼搏精神。爱国主义是具体的,是我们把它融入千锤百炼的艰辛里,融入超越自我的攀登中。在 21 世纪的悉尼奥运会上,我们完全相信中国体育健儿会更加斗志昂扬,战绩辉煌。

同学们,让我们张开双臂去拥抱 21 世纪第一轮升起在奥运会赛场的骄阳,让我们在庄严的五环旗下继续谱写壮美的奥林匹克华彩乐章 !

【指点迷津】

A. 大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

Preference (偏爱)

● Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语 30 句

1. - Which is your favourite month ? 你最喜欢哪个月份 ?

- I think May is the best month . 我认为五月是最好的月份。

2. I prefer to work in the sales department . 我宁愿在销售部工作。

3. What job do you prefer ? 你喜爱什么工作 ?

4. They prefer working to doing nothing . 他们喜欢工作,不愿碌碌无为。

注意句型:prefer sth + to sth , prefer + to do rather than + do , prefer + doing + to +doing

5. Which do you prefer , riding a bike or taking a bus ?

6. I would rather walk home with Xiao Ming .

7. I'd rather give up my opinion . It's no use making such a plan .

8. I would rather you took his advice . 我宁愿你接受他的建议。

注意:would rather 后的宾语从句中用过去时表达现在或者将来的时间。如果句中有表达过去的时间状语时,并于从句用过去完成时。如:I would rather you had visited that county last year . 你要是去年参观了那个县就好了。

9. Which colour do you prefer , red or black ?

10. My mother would prefer me not to dress in black . 我妈妈不喜欢我穿黑色的。

11. I would rather have the small one than the big one .

12. Do you like fried egg better ? 你比较喜欢油炸的鸡蛋吗 ?

13. Do you like oranges better than apples ? 你喜欢橘子胜于苹果吗 ?

14. Would you rather stay here or go back home ?

15. We can travel by air or by train . What do you say ?

16. Do you find stamp collecting or gardening more to your taste ?

17. How do Marx and Jones compare , in your opinion ? 在你看来,马克和琼斯相比怎么样 ?

18. We could put off the meeting . I leave it to you to decide .

19. As far as I am concerned , living in a cottage is more comfortable than living in a flat . 就我来说,生活在乡村小屋比生活在公寓里更舒服。

20. For me , the best thing is to take a rest .

21. I enjoy watching TV plays in my spare time . 我喜欢在闲时看电视剧。

22. If possible , I'd prefer to have a drink .

23. On the whole , I find riding a bike more enjoyable than riding a bus . 总的来说,我觉得骑自行车比乘公共汽车更愉快。

24. There is nothing I like / enjoy more than modern dance . 我最喜欢现代舞。

25. Fishing is a lovely way of spending a day off . 钓鱼是度假的好办法。

26. I can't tell you how much I like soft cheese . 我无法对你形容我是多么喜欢软奶酪。

27. You can have Thursday or Friday off , what do you say ?

28. Frankly , I don't like the music of the 18th century . 坦白地说,我不喜欢18 世纪的音乐。

29. To be honest , I don't feel like eating anything today . 说真的,今天我什么都不喜欢吃。

30. Rather than take a bus , I prefer to take a plane .

● Model Dialogues (交际示范)

A

A:Would you like some fruit , Rose ?

B:Yes , please .

A:Which do you prefer , apples or bananas ?

B:I prefer apples to bananas . I think apples are more delicious than bananas .

A:OK , here are some apples . But I'd rather have some bananas .

 

B

A:Do you often have sports at school ?

B:Of course . I love sports .

A:Which do you prefer , horse-riding or shooting ?

B:Shooting . Do you like shooting ?

A:I prefer horse-riding to shooting .

B:What about wrestling and sailing ?

A:Both of them are exciting , but I'd rather watch them .

B:Me too .

 

C

A:Hello , what can I do for you ?

B:Do you have any salad ?

A:Yes . Would you like the Caesar's salad or fruit salad ?

B:I prefer Caesar's salad .

A:Anything to drink ?

B:Of course .

A:Coffee or tea ?

B:I prefer coffee .

 

D

Jane:Hello , Betty . Are you doing anything this Sunday ? How about going to see a film with me or would you rather see a play ?

Betty:To tell the truth , I'd rather see a play . I don't care much for films . I hear a new play is on at the Grand Theatre .

Jane:Good . I'll see if I can get tickets for Sunday .

Betty:The thing I don't like on Sunday is that it's always so crowded . How about Friday or Saturday ?

Jane:That would be fine . I'll give you a call about the tickets later . Good-bye .

B. 单元重点新词透视

1. exciting 作形容词是指某事使人感到很激动和兴奋,意为“令人兴奋的,令人鼓舞的”,可以作定语和表语。如:

It's an exciting experience just to walk down a New York street . 漫步纽约街头是一件十分令人激动的经历。

Skiing is more exciting than skating . 滑雪比溜冰更激动人心。

测试要点:

辨析 exciting 、 excited、excitement、excite、excitedly

◇ exciting 是“令人兴奋的,令人鼓舞的”,可以作定语和表语。作表语时,其主语常常是物。

He told us a piece of exciting news .

The speech that he made last week proves exciting . 他上周做的报告证明是鼓舞人心的。

◇ excited 是“使兴奋,被感到”,在句中做表语时,其主语常常是人。

The little boys were excited very much by the story .

At such a good news , he seemed excited all the morning . 听到好消息后,他整个上午都兴奋不已。

◇ excitement 是名词,常用于固定搭配 “to one's excitement=to the excitement of sb”(使某人兴奋的是)。in excitement=excitedly 兴奋地。如:

He has a weak heart , and he should avoid excitement . 他心脏虚弱,应避免激动。

After the meeting , he sang in excitement on his way home . 会议结束后,在回家的途中他兴奋不已地唱个不停。

◇ excite 是动词,excitedly 是副词。如:

The news excited us .=We were excited by the news .=We were excited to hear the news .

Don't excite yourself .=Don't be excited .

It's nothing to get excited about . 这没有什么可激动的。

Getting / Becoming excited easily is of no use . 易激动是没有用的。

2. swift 常作形容词“快的,迅速的”,其比较级为 swifter , 其最高级为 swiftest 。

The river is too swift to swim . 这河水流太急,不能游泳。

They had a swift visit to the shop . 他们匆匆地逛了一下商店。

测试要点:辨析 swift , quick , fast , rapid

swift 所指的运动速度最高,同时强调运动的平稳潇洒和轻捷不费力气,灵巧优美。常与 quick 通用。

He are in great need of a swift horse . 你十分需要一匹骏马。

The eight-year-old boy gave me a swift / quick answer . 那个八岁的小男孩迅速地回答了我。

quick 指运动动作发生或者完成的迅速、敏捷,强调的是单一动作的突然性和短暂性。含有灵巧性。

He ate a quick breakfast and rushed off to work . 他匆匆吃了早饭就赶着上班去了。

I felt a quick pull on my fishing line . 我感到鱼线给突然拉了以下。

He is quick to understand a stranger . 他善于理解陌生人的意思。

fast 多指运动的物体,位置移动的迅速,强调物体运动的方式,具有高速运动的含义。是 slow 的反义词。

You are reading too fast for me to follow .

We must take the fast train .

My watch is fast . 我的手表快了。

He ran faster and faster along the bank of the river . 沿着河他跑的越来越快。

rapid 常和 fast 互换,但rapid 多指运动本身程度的变化,可以是人口的增加、进步的幅度等。

The improvement was very rapid . 改进极为迅速。

He made rapid progress last term .

3. medal 奖章,奖牌

In the Olympic Games the first winner will get a gold medal . 在奥运会上第一名将获得一枚金牌。

That officer received many medals for bravery . 这位军官由于勇敢而荣获许多奖章。

测试要点:会区分使用 medal (奖章,奖牌), model (模特,), metal (金属)

Can I have a look at your Medal of Freedom ? 我可以看一下你的自由勋章吗 ?

He bought his son a model of ship from the USA . 他给儿子从美国买了一个轮船模型。

Do you want to be a model when you grow up ? 你长大后想当一名模特吗 ?

China is a country with a long history . She is rich in many kinds of metals . 中国是一个拥有悠久历史的国度,中国有丰富的矿藏资源。

4. prize 奖赏,奖品。常用于动词 gain , get , receive , take , win , offer , give 等后面。

They got most of the prizes at the village flower . 他们夺得了该村花展的大部分奖项。

Winning the Nobel Prize for Physics is very difficult . 获得诺贝尔物理奖是十分困难的。

测试要点:会区别开 prize (奖品) ,praise (表扬),price (价格)

He praised her for helping his son with the homework .

The price of the car is higher here than in that shop .

5. like 喜欢,喜爱。可以作介词和动词。

◇ like someone/something表示“喜欢某人或某物”

典型用法1. like...very much表示“非常喜欢.....”。

The parents like their little son very much.

典型用法2. like...better/best 表示“更/最喜欢......”。

Mike likes maths better than chemistry.

This is the pen that he likes best.

◇ like to do/doing...表示“喜欢做某事”。

典型用法 1. like doing...表示“经常性、习惯性的动作”。

My father likes reading evening newspapers.

典型用法 2.like to do...表示“具体的或特定的动作。”

We like to have a talk with you.

◇ like someone to do...表示“希望/欢迎某人去做某件事”。

Do you like us to play together with you ?

◇ would like...表示“想要......”。

典型用法 1.would like something 表示“想要某物”。

Would you like some water ? No,thanks.

典型用法 2.would like to do...表示“想要做某事”。

◇ Mary would not like to attend such a meeting.

典型用法 3.would like someone to do 表示“想要某人去做某件事”。

I would like her to tell the truth.

The strangers would like those villagers to give them some help.

注:当第一人称 I 或we 作主语时,也可用 should like...。

◇ feel like...表示“感觉想要......”。

典型用法 1.feel like sth.表示“觉得想要某物”。

My sister felt like some sweets.

典型用法 2. feel like doing...表示“觉得想做某件事”。

What do you feel like doing before you go back ?

C. 单元重点词组扫瞄

Lesson 37

1. have sports 进行体育运动

We have sports at four in the afternoon every day .

What sports do you have at the sports meeting ?

测试要点:注意由动词 have 构成的固定词组具有特定的意义。

have a date 有约会。have a go at 试试。(Let me have a go at it , all right ? / He had several goes at it before he succeeded .) have a good / high opinion of 对……评价好。have a good time 过的愉快,玩的开心。have a rough time 日子艰难。have a hard time + doing 干……很费劲。have / run a temperature 发烧。have a work with 和……交谈。have words with sb 和某人争吵。have an effect on / upon 对……有影响。have mercy on / upon 对……产生怜悯。have no choice but to do 只有干…… 。have none of 不理睬……。have nothing to do with 与……没有关系。have something to do with 与有联系。have on 穿着,戴着,有事。(注意该词组不用进行时态。如:Today she has on a red skirt .=Today she wears a red skirt .=Today she is wearing a red skirt .=Today she is dressed in a red skirt .) have / take pity on / upon 同情,怜悯。(He said that he has no pity on people who do not try to help others . )have sports 进行体育运动。have a rest / break 休息一下。have a bad cough 咳嗽得厉害。

2. be good at 擅长

Are you good at sailing ? 你擅长赛艇吗 ?

I was never any good at dancing .

3. in fact 事实上,实际上

No one believed it but , in fact , Mary did get a good result in this exam .

He doesn't mind . In fact , he is very satisfied .

4. let sb know 通知某人。告诉某人

If you arrive in Beijing this afternoon , please let me know as soon as possible .

5. read out 大声念出=read aloud

He is reading out the football results .

An important notice was read out by our monitor .

 

Lesson 38

1. in modern times 现代,近代

He was one of the great artists in modern times . 他是近代的伟大艺术家之一。

2. every four years 每四年,每隔三年=every fourth year

Both Summer and Winter Olympics are held every four years . 夏季奥运会和冬季奥运会都是每四年举行一次。

注意上面的基数词和序数词。另外,“每两天”是every other day / every two days。

3. take part in 参加

He took an active part in revolution .

Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Qlympic Games .

Britain is one of the countries in which women take part in wrestling .

测试要点:辨析 take part in , attend , join , join in

take part in 表示参加某种活动并在里面以积极的态度起作用。

Do you want to take part in this discussion ?

attend 常用于参加婚礼、追悼会、课堂学习等。

I am sure he will come to attend this meeting tonight .

join in 参加游戏或小活动。常同 game 连用。

More and more countries joined in the Olympic Games .

He will join us in singing the song .

Will you join me in buying a present for her ?

Please come and join in this game . It is very interesting .

join 参加某个组织,入党、入团等。

He joined the Communist Party of China in 1980 .=He has been a party member since 1980 .

4. for centuries 好几百年来,数个世纪以来

For centuries there were no Olympic Games .

D. 单元语法学习目标

“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句小结

1. 当 which 的先行词不是从句中及物动词的宾语,而是从句中不及物动词所带的介词宾语时,或者是从句中作为状语或定语用的介词短语中的介词宾语时,定语从句常用“介词 + which (whom)”来引导,不用其它关系代词,whom 指人,which 指物。例如:

The house was built on a hillside , below which was a winding valley . 那所房子建 在山坡上,在山坡的下面有一条蜿蜒的溪谷。

This is the book for which you asked .

My glasses , without which I was like a blind man , felt to the ground and broke .

Here is the young man about whom we've heard so much .

By the side of the well there was a board on which were written these words :“Don't forget the digger when you fetch water from the well .”在井的旁边有一块木板,上面写着:“饮水莫忘挖井人。”

2. 这样的介词可以放在 whom , which 之前,也可以放在从句中原来的位置上。但含有介词的短语动词一般不可拆开,介词仍放在动词之后,不能前置。例如:

The babies (whom) the nurses look after all look happy and healthy . ( look after 为固定词组)

Is he the man (whom) you spoke to yesterday ?

Is this the knife which you've looking for all day long ?

对比:This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived .=This is the house (which) Lu Xun once lived in .

3. 如果介词放在定语从句之后,关系代词 which , whom 可以用 that 来替换,亦可以省略 which , whom 。

Can you lend me the book (that ) you were talking about the other day ? (about不能放 that 前,但把 that 该为 which 时就可以了。)

The house which / that we live in is not large .=The house we live in is not large .=The house in which we live isn't large .

 

4. 关系代词前的介词选用要按习惯搭配和具体语言环境而选用,不能随心所欲。例如:

There is a book about which I told you last week . (tell sb about sth)

Everyone here knows the method with which the computer works . (with the method)

The ladder on which I was standing began to slip . (stand on)

5. 但介词却不能放在 that 之前,除非可以特殊地使用:but / except + that 。but / except + that 只能引导限制性定语从句。that 只起连接作用,不冲充当句子成分。

He stood there , doing nothing except that his mouth was open .

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

● 请你走出单项填空题的解题思维误区

误区之一:受假性“原型”误导,误入歧途

NMET的单项填空题往往设置一些所谓的“原型”来诱使作答者模仿。基本功不够扎实的同学极易“上钩”而出错。如:

1 . - Don't forget to return the dictionary to the library .

-____ .

A . I don't B . I won't C . I can't D . I haven't

本题受 Don't forget 的误导,常误选A。英语中的祈使句通常表示将来要发生的动作,所以答语中的“我忘不了”实际上是“我(将)不会忘记”。正确答案是B。

2 . - I wonder if your sister will go to the concert .

- If your sister does . so ____ mine .

A . is B . do C . does D . will

本题受 If you sister does 中 does 的误导,常常误选C。由于条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替一般将来时,所以题中的 If your sister does 中的 does 实际上等于will go to the concert , 所以“我妹妹也去”应该是“Mine will go , too . ”因此正确答案是D。

3 . You should throw the old newspaper into ____ basket .

A . a paper B . paper C . papers D . the papers

通常,paper 表示“纸”,是不可数名词,前面不带a,受其误导,误选B。但本题讲的是要将旧报纸扔进纸篓。“纸”虽不可数,但“纸篓”是可数名词,因此正确答案是A。

启示:①解题时要注意对题目进行仔细而全面的分析,防止掉入“陷井”;②寻找解决问题的根据,要注意“走对路”,不要“进错门”。

〖项固练习〗

1 .- Would you lend me your pen for a while ?

-Certainly I ____ .

A . Would B . should C . will D . shall

2 .- Could I use your bicycle ?

-Yes , of course you ____ .

A . can B . could C . will D . would

3 . I have met ____ people as Lei Feng in China .

A . many B . so many C . many such D . as many

4 . Only when she got home did she find her necklace ____ .

A . miss B . to miss C . missed D . missing

5 .- I've got an extra ticket for one of you .

- Oh , really ? Whom would you like ____ with you , Tom or me ?

A . to have go B . to have gone C . having to go D . having going

误区之二:忽视“迟到信息”,不瞻前顾后

NMET 单项填空的空白后有时附带着一些文字信息,通常被称为“迟到的信息”。这些“迟到的信息”有的是无关紧要的,有的则对答案的选择起着决定性的作用,忽视这样的信息,不瞻前顾后,往往要出错。如:

9 . Jenny ____ have kept her word . I wonder why she changed her mind .

A . could B . might not C . should D . would not

题中的 I wonder why she changed her mind 一句虽为迟到的信息,但它说明 she changed her mind , 也就是 she didn't keep her word , 据此可推断正确答案是C。

10 .- He promised to come to see you .

- But he ____ I've been alone .

A . doesn't B . din't C . won't D . hasn't

11. 本题若只注意到He promised 而忽略 I've been alone 这一“迟到的信息”,就会误选答案B。I've been alone 这一句表明,be 不仅过去没来,而且现在仍没来,所以正确答案是D。

12 .- Didn't you watch the football match yesterday ?

-____ . I would like to have seen it .

A . Yes , I did B . No , I didn't C . Yes , I didn't D . No , I did

解答本题必须重视 I would like to have seen it 这一“迟到的信息”,它相当于 I had wanted to see it , 意为“我本想观看它”,可见实际上我没看足球赛,因此正确答案是B。

启示:题中的每个信息点包括标点符号都是重要的,不影响答案选择的信息很少,解题时必须瞻前顾后,通盘考虑。

〖巩固练习〗

13 . You ____ the plant more water . It is dead .

A . will give B . would have given

C . must give D . should have given批评老师。” (A)去掉 by 和 was。“那调皮的男孩过去经常批评老师。”5 . B(A)没有定冠词时,题干的定语从句缺先行词,故要加上 the one ; 如用 the bookstore 时,the bookstore 即是先行词,关系代词 that 在定语从句中作动词 referred to 的宾语,可以省略;如果题干前半部分 Is it this bookstore ____,该句子即变为强调句时,还是选A,但这时 that 不可以省去。

★ 删去干扰词或句,让“标志”更明显。例如:

1 . How about (the two of us) ____ a walk down the street ?

A . to take B . take C . taking D . to be taking

2 . ____ the money (John had) ____ ?

A . Did ; stolen B . Was ; stolen

C . Was ; to stolen D . Had ; stolen

3 . His car runs ____ , (if no faster than) a race car .

A . so fast B . as fast C . as fast as D . so fast as

4 . The wonderful time (they have been looking forward to) ____ finally arrived .

A . has B . had C . have D . having

5 . Nobody (but Tom and John) ____ what he said .

A . believe B . believes C . believe in D . believes in

答案:1 . C 2 . B 3 . C 4 . A 5 . B

★ 将题干中被省略的词补出来,使“标志”更鲜明。例如:

1 . He did ____ he could(do) ____ the old lady .

A . all ; calm B . what ; calm

C . what ; to calm D . all which ; to calm

2 . Only those(who) ____ knew well could be let in .

A . did he B . he did C . who D . he

3 .- Whom should this message be sent to ?

- My teacher is the one (for you) ____ .

A . to send it B . to be sent to C . for sending it D . to send it to

4 . How clever (it is) ____ to do so!

A . for the boy B . of the boy C . with the boy D . at the boy

5 . They don't realize the use (that 或 which) ____ the information .

A . we make of B . which we make

C . for our making D . for us to make

答案及说明:1 . C 2 . D 3 . D 4 . B 5 . A。第5题 A 为定语从句,动词 make 后的 use 被关系代词代替,由于关系代词作宾语被省略。

★ 句子结构还原,主要用于疑问句和省略句的题干。例如:

1 . What way are you thinking of ____ rid of rats ?

A . get B . getting C . to get D . being get

2 . Who did you ____ ____ the radio ?

A . have repaired B . have to repair

C . have repairing D . have repair

3 . If you go there tomorrow , ____ .

A . so I do B . so will I C . so I will D . so do I

4 .- Why was the meeting called ?

- ____ new officials .

A . Elect B . Electing C . To elect D . By electing

答案及说明:1 . C 2 . D 3 . B。省略后倒装。“If you go there tomorrow , I will go there , too . ” 4 . C。不定式回答“目的”或“原因”。The meeting was called to elect new officials . 再如:

- What made her so upset ?

- ____ a wonderful stamp .

A . To lose B . Lost C . Losing D . For losing

选C。回答 what 作动词 made 的主语。

当然,选择题思路很多,只要学会“变”,相信一定会有收获。

● 单项填空中的合理推测

推测不是瞎猜乱碰,是从题目寻找信息,有理有据,合理推测。

■ 根据题干特定信息进行推测

NMET 题干的设计水平和灵活性逐年提高。有关信息不仅在句子表面,也可能存在于字里行间,或存在于某一个不引入注目的单词上。所以,首先要细读题干,精心领会其意义,然后有针对性地、准确地找到某个特定信息,以此为据,推断定论。切不可读题粗略,貌然确定答案。

- Do you remember ____ he came ?

- Yes , I do , he came by car .

A . how B . when C . that D . if

从语法上看A,B都可以填,但正确答案只有一个。by car 这一特定信息暗示了问句问的是“方式”,所以A才是最佳选择。

Peter ____ come with us tonight , but he isn't very sure yet .

A . must B . can C . may D . will

题干后部的意思为 ? “……但他还不十分肯定;”,由此推测他不是“必须来”,不是“将会来”,也不是“能够来”,而是“可能来”,选C。再如:

- If you don't like the red coat , take the blue one .

- OK , but do you have ____ size in blue ? This one's a bit tight for me .

A . a big B . a bigger C . the big D . the bigger

题干意思是“这一件稍紧一点”,可见他想要的是尺码较大的。所以 big 要用比较级。题干的另一意思不是“要好一件更大的蓝外衣”,而是问“蓝外衣中是否有一种尺码大的”。所以不是特指,应选B。

■ 根据句子结构、语法进行推测

有些题目的考查目的是针对句子结构或语法,这时受试者不但要理解题干,而且要有针对性地分析其语法成份,选出符合结构要求的答案。例如:

John plays football ____ , if not better than , David .

A . as will B . as well as C . so well D . so well as

逗号隔开的部分是插入语,也是一个省略的条件状语从句,从句中的否定与主句无关。David 是两者比较的另一方,所以同级比较句型要用 as well as。如果选A,就少了连接从句的连词。

____ from Beijing to London !

A . How long way it is B . What a long way is it

C . How long way is it D . What a long way it is

way 是可数名词首先排除A、C。此句不是问句,根据句子结构要求,要用陈述句的语序,选D。

如果你碰到难词、生词,不解其意,可以从语法的角度去考虑。尽管对句子的意义仍模糊不清,但通过合理推测却能找到正确答案。例如:

The weather turned out to be very good , ___ was more than we could expect .

A . what B . which C . that D . it

考生对短语 turn out 不甚了解,但这不影响解题。只要以语法结构为依法。就能推断出 B是答案,因为只有 which 才能引导非限制性定语从句。turn out to be 意为“结果是……”。请再看:

There're so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that i can't make up my mind ____ to buy .

A . which B . what C . how D . where

句中的 tape-recorder 和 on sale 课本上都没有直接出现过,但 buy 是一个熟知的及物动词,它需要有宾语。因此,这儿要用连接代词作宾语,首先排除C、D。再根据 which 和 what 的用法区别来取舍。在已知或有限范围的选择场合要用 which。因此该选A。tape-recorder 意思是“磁带录音机”,on sale 是“出售”。

■ 用排除法推测

选择填空既是一个观察、推测、判断的过程,也是一个将错误选项一一排除,找出正确答案的过程。排除法适用于任何一道选择题。在解题中,利用排除法可以缩小思考范围,节省时间和精力。例如:

If there were no examinations , we should have ____ at school .

A . the happiest time B . a more happier time

C . much happiest time D . a much happier time

B、C形式上明显有错,首先排除,重点考虑A、D。此句不属三者以上场合,仅是“有考试”与“没考试”两种情况的对比。所以推测D是正确答案。

It was not ____ she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star .

A . until ; when B . when ; that C . until ; that D . when ; then

从结构上看这一句是强调句型,首先排除A、再仔细思考B、C。只有 until 才有这种 not 前移的用法,所以推断答案为C。

排除法还有个特殊功能:当受试者对某个选项的意义,用法不甚明确,而这个选项又恰恰很可能是正确答案时,可以将其余的选项逐个排除,从而证实它的正确性。这种合理推测能使考生得到意外的收获。请看:

If you keep on , you'll succeed ____ .

A . in time B . at one time C . at the same time D . on time

B意为“一度”,C意为“同时”,意义都明显不符合,应予排除。D意为“准时”,意义也不符。A“及时”,意义虽不贴切,但总比B、C、D好一些,合理推测A是正确答案。其实,此处 in time 由“及时”引申为“迟早”、“总有一天”。

■ 根据题目设计的缺陷或弱点欠缺之处推测

有时试题在命题设计上难免存在缺陷或弱点,在无从下手的情况下,利用这些缺陷或弱点,或可曲径通幽,出奇制胜。通常有两种情况:(1)有两个(以上)的选项在语法上可视为“同类项”;(2)有某个选项在语法上明显错误,属试题命制时的“凑数项”。

对于第一种情况,可先排除“同类项”,因为一道题目不可能出现两个(以上)的正确答案。例如:

I didn't see your sister at the meeting . If she ____ , she would have met my brother .

A . has come B . did come C . came D . had come

B、C属“同类项”,都是一般过去时。如果C正确,B也可以填,所以都应排除。剩下A、D相比较,就显得容易了,A是现在完成时可排除,D是过去完成时,该选D。

【妙文赏析】

THE HOUNDS OF BASKERVILLES ( 猎犬 )

柯南道尔 著

Chapter VI

A CUNNING ENEMY( 一个狡猾的敌人 )

On the way to the Northumberland Hotel , Holmes entered a telegraph office . There he sent a wire to the Official Registry (佣工介绍所) , inquiring for the name and address of the cabman whose number he had remembered . As the two friends were going up the stairs of the Northumberland Hotel they saw Sir Henry standing on the landing of the second floor . His face was red with anger and he was holding an old and dirty boot in one of his hands .

“By thunder ,” he cried , “ if my boot isn't found immediately there will be trouble . ”

“Are you still looking for your boot ? ” exclaimed Waston .

“Yes , but now another boot has disappeared . Last night they took one of my brown boots , and today they have stolen one from the black pair . Well , have you found it ? ” he asked the servant , who had appeared upon the scene .

“ No, sir . Please have a little patience . I have looked for it everywhere , but I can't find it .” said the frightened servant .

“Well , either that boot comes back before night , or I go straight to the manager of the hotel . ”

“ It shall be found , sir ?/FONT> I promise you . Only have a little patience ,” exclaimed the frightened servant .

“ Very strange ,” said Holmes thoughtfully to himself .

“ Excuse me , Mr. Holmes , for this quarrel about a trifle (小时) ,” said Sir Henry , “ but 棥?/P>

“ It is not a trifle ,” interrupted . Holmes seriously . “ Your case is very hard . Sir Henry , but I hope that sooner or later we shall make things clear .”

At lunch Holmes asked Sir Henry what he intended to do .

“ I want to go to Baskerville Hall ,” was the answer .

“ And when ? ”

“At the end of the week .”

“ Perhaps you are right ,”said Holmes . “I know that you are followed in London and among the millions of this great city it is difficult to discover who the spy is and what he wants . You did not know , Dr. Mortimer , that you were followed this morning ? ”

“Followed !” exclaimed Dr. Mortimer , starting violently . “By whom ?”

“That , unfortunately , I can't tell you . Have you among your neighbours or acquaintances (熟人) any man with a large black beard ?” asked Holmes .

“ No ,?/FONT>oh ?/FONT> yes , certainly , Barrymore , Sir Charles's servant . He has a large black beard .” replied Dr. Mortimer .

“And where is Barrymore ?”

“He is at the Hall .”

“We must make sure that he is really there .”

“How can we do that ?”

“Give me a telegraph form . Write : ‘ Is all ready for Sir Henry ? ’address to Mr. Barrymore , Baskerville Hall . Which is the nearest telegraph-office ? ”

“Grimpen .”

“Very good . We shall send a second wire to the postmaster at Grimpen:‘ Telegram to Mr. Barrymore deliver into his own hands . If absent , return telegram to Sir Henry Baskerville , Northumberland Hotel .’Then we shall know before evening where Barrymore is . By the way , Dr. Mortimer , who is this Barrymore ?”

“He is the son of the old caretaker (管家) who is dead . He and his wife are a very respectable couple , as far as I know .”

“At the same time it's clear ,”said Baskerville , “that while there is nobody at the Hall , they have an easy life .”

“That is true ,” said Waston .

“Did Barrymore get anything by Sir Charles's will ?” asked Holmes .

“ He and his wife got 500 pounds each .”

“Did they know that they would receive this ?”

“Yes , Sir Charles liked to talk about his will .”

“That is very interesting . Did anyone else get anything ?”

“He left many small sums to individuals and a large number of public charities . The rest all went to Sir Henry , ”explained Dr. Mortimer .

“And how much was the rest ?”

“Seven hundred and forty thousand pounds . The total value of the estate is almost a million ” answered Dr. Mortimer .

Holmes looked surprised . “ I didn't think that he was so rich , ”he said . “That explains some things . I can understand that a man may risk much for such a large sum . Have you made your will , Sir Henry ? ”

“No , Mr. Holmes , I have not . I've had no time for it . You forget I arrived here only yesterday .”

“ Well , Sir Henry , I agree that it's best for you to go to your native place without delay , but you certainly must not go alone . ”

“ Dr. Mortimer returns with me . ”

“But Dr. Mortimer has his practice , and his house is some miles away from yours . No , Sir Henry , you must take with you someone who will always be by your side .”

“Could you come yourself , Mr. Holmes ? ”

“That's quite impossible . I cannot leave London for an indefinite time , as I am too busy .”

“Whom would you recommend (推荐) then .”

Holmes laid his hand upon Waston's arm . “There is no man who could be better than my friend Dr. Waston , ”he said .

“That would be really kind of you , ”Sir Henry exclaimed . “If you go with me to Baskerville Hall and help me , I shall never forget it . ”

“I will come with pleasure , ”said Dr. Waston .

“And you must report everything to me , ”said Holmes . “ I shall tell you how to act . ”

The question was soon settled . It was decided that Sir Henry , Dr. Mortimer and Waston set off for Devonshire on Saturday . Lunch was over and Holmes was just saying goodbye , when Sir Henry with a cry of surprise drew a brown boot from under a table in the corner of the room .

“ My missing boot ! ” he exclaimed .

“ But this is very strange .”said Dr. Mortimer . “ I searched this room carefully before lunch and there was certainly no boot in it .” said Dr. Mortimer .

The servant was called in and questioned , but he said he knew nothing about it .

Holmes was silent in the cab as he drove home with Waston . All the evening he sat in his armchair smoking and thinking . So many strange things had happened in these two days - the printed letter , the black-bearded spy in the cab , the loss of the new boot , the loss of the old black boot , and now the return of the brown boot . Just before dinner a telegram was brought . It ran : “Have just received answer from postmaster , Grimpen . Berrymore is at the Hall . Baskerville .”

A few minutes later the door bell rang and a man entered the room .

“ I was told that you wanted to see the cabman of No. 2704 , ”he said . “I have come to ask you what you have against me .”

“ I have nothing against you , my good fellow ,”said Holmes . “ On the contrary , if you give me a clear answer to my question , I shall reward you .”

“Well , what did you want to ask , sir ? ”

“First of all your name and address . ”

“John Clayton , 3 , Turpey Street .”

Holmes put it down . “Now , Clayton ,” he said , “tell me all about the gentleman who was in your cab this morning . He was watching the house at ten o'clock and then he followed two gentlemen down Regent Street .”

The cabman looked a little embarrassed . “You seem to know everything , ”he said . “But you see , the gentleman told me that he was a detective and I must not speak to anyone about him .”

“My good fellow , this is a very serious business and your position will be very bad if you try to hide anything from me . Did the gentleman say anything else ?”

“He told me his name .”

“His name ? What was it ?”

“ It was Mr. Sherlock Holmes , ” answered tha cabman .

For a moment Holmes was too much surprised to speak . Then he burst into a hearty laugh . “Excellent !” he exclaimed . “Now , Clayton , tell me all about him .”

“Well , sir , he stopped me at half-past nine in Trafalgar Square . He said that he was a detective and offered me two sovereigns (金镑) if I did exactly what he wanted all day and asked no questions . I was glad to agree . First we drove to the Northumberland Hotel and waited there until two gentlemen came out and took a cab in the street . We followed their cab until it stopped somewhere near this house . We waited for about an hour . Then the two gentlemen passed us walking and we followed them along ”

“ I know ,” said Holmes , “go on .”

“So we were following them down Regent Street when suddenly my gentleman closed the window and cried to me drive as fast as I could to Waterloo Station . We were there in ten minutes . He paid me two sovereigns and went into the station . At the last moment he turned round and said : ‘It may interest you know that you have driven Mr. Sherlock Holmes .’That is all .”

Holmes laughed :“So his name was Sherlock Holmes , he said ?”

“Yes , sir , that was the gentleman's name . ”

“And can you describe that gentleman .”

The cabman scratched his head . “ Well , it isn't so easy to describe him . He is about forty and is of middle height . He has a black beard and a pale face . That is all I can say about him .”

“ Well then , here is your half-sovereign , and you will have another one if you can bring any more information . Good night ! ”

When the cabman had gone , Holmes turned to his friend with a sad smile : “ Our enemy is cunning , Waston , ” he said . “ This time he has beaten me . It's a dangerous business and I shall be happy when you return safe and sound to London again .”

Chapter VII

AT BASKERVILLE HALL ( 在巴斯克维尔庄园 )

On the appointed (约定) day , Sir Henry Baskerville and Dr. Mortimer were at the station . Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Waston soon joined them there .

“ I don't want you to make any judgements , Waston. ” said Homles to his friend , taking him aside . “I only want you to report all the possible facts to me .”

“ What sort of facts ? ” asked Waston .

“ Everything that has the smallest connection with this case ?/FONT> and especially the relations between Sir Henry and his neighbours . If you hear of any new details connected with the death of Sir Charles , do let me know . And study the people who live on the moor near Baskerville Hall ?/FONT> the Barrymores , Dr. Mmortimer , the naturalist Stapleton and his sister , Mr. Frankland and one or two other neighbours . ”

“ I will do my best . ”

“ Have you taken arms ? ”

“ Yes , I thought it necessary .”

“ Certainly . Keep your revolver (左轮手枪) near you day and night and be very careful . ”

“ I will , my dear friend . Don't worry . ”

By the way , Sir Henry , ” said Holmes , turning to young Baskerville who was talking to Dr. Mortimer , “ have you found your black boot ?”

“ No , Mr. Holmes , it has disappeared . ”

“That's very interesting . Well , goodbye ,” he added as the train began to move , “ and remember , Sir Henry , don't walk on the moor alone when it is dark .”

When they were on their way , Sir Henry , who was looking out of the window , seemed happy to see the land where he had spent his childhood . The train stopped at a small station and the three men got out . A carriage with a pair of horses was waiting for them . The station was a quiet , pleasant spot and Waston was surprised to see two soldiers standing by the station gate . They looked at all the passers-by . The coachman greeted Sir Henry and soon the carriage with the three men was rolling swiftly along the road . On the top of the hill there stood another soldier . He was watching the road . The coachman explained to them that a prisoner had escaped from the prison of Princetown and was hiding on the moor . The man was a dangerous murderer , and the soldiers had received orders to watch every road and every station , but they had not yet found him . Somewhere there , on the dark moor, was this terrible man , hiding in a hole like a beast . This made the wild and sad place seem still wilder and sadder . Soon the road turned sharply and the wide , silent moor came in sight . A few minutes later the carriage stopped before a large house from which rose two high narrow towers .

“ Welcome to Baskerville Hall , Sir Henry , ” said a tall man with a black beard , opening the door of the carriage . It was Barrymore , the servant . His wife came forward to help take down the luggage as well .

Dr. Mortimer refused to stay for dinner , saying that his wife was expecting him back . He said goodbye to Sir Henry and Waston and then the carriage rolled away . The two men entered the hall . It was a very fine hall , large high , with a great old-fashioned fireplace . The Barrymores had taken the luggage to the bedroom .

Barrymore came up to ask : “Will you have dinner now , sir ? ”

“ Is it ready ? ”

“ Yes , sir . I should like to tell you that my wife and I will be happy to serve you for some time , but then we should like to go . ”

“ But why ? ” Sir Henry asked in surprise .

“ You see , sir , the death of Sir Charles has made this house very unpleasant to us . ”

“ Well , we shall speak about this later . Now show us the dinning-room . My friend and I are hungry after our journey . ”

A few minutes later Sir Henry and Waston were seated at the dinner table . The room was dark and gloomy (郁闷) . There was a long line of old family portraits on the wall and their silent company was not pleasant . The two men talked little and when dinner was over they were happy to go to the modern billiard-room and smoke a cigarette .

“ It isn't a very cheerful place , ” said Sir Henry . “ I am not surprised that my poor uncle felt nervous in such an gloomy house . But let us go to bed early tonight , perhaps in the morning we shall feel more cheerful .”

They said good night to each other and went to their rooms . Before going to bed Waston opened the window and looked out . In the cold light of the moon he could see the strange moor . Everything was silent around . Waston went to bed . He was very tired , yet he could not sleep . Far away a clock struck twelve . Suddenly the stillness of the night was broken by an unexpected sound . It was the sobbing (啜泣) of a woman . Waston sat up in bed and listened all ears . The woman was sobbing not far away , certainly in the house . The sound stopped suddenly as it had began . For half an hour Waston waited to hear the sound again , but all was still .

Chapter VIII

DR. WASTON MEETS STAPLETON ,

THE NATURALIST

( 华生医师同生物学家斯台普顿的会见 )

The next morning it was bright and sunny , and the room looked quite cheerful as Sir Henry and Waston sat down to breakfast .

“ We were tired and cold after our journey last night , ” said Sir Henry , “ so the place seemed uncomfortable . Now , after a good rest , we are fresh and well and the house is more cheerful . ”

“ That's true , but didn' t you hear the sobbing of a woman in the night ? ”

“ It's strange ,”said Sir Henry in a loud voice , “ for when I was half-asleep , I heard something of the sort . I thought it took place in my dream .”

“I heard it clearly and I am sure that it was really the sobbing of a woman ,”said Waston .

“ We shall ask Barrymore about it , ” said Sir Henry ringing the bell .

Barrymore became pale when he

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit11.doc

标题 Unit 11

章节 第十一单元

关键词 内容

一、掌握本单元出现的单词和词组。

theatre, leader, value, remain, boyfriend, appear, electrical, neighbour, fun restaurant, successful, broadcast, success, society, anger, political, equipment, beauty, pop star, pop music, make fun of, think of, on the radio, make a record, no longer.

 

二、掌握本单元出现的日常交际用语。

Haven’t you heard of … ? That’s a good idea. You’d better…

I think you’d enjoy it. I’m afraid I’m not. Why not? Why don’t you?

 

三、本单元知识重点与难点分析

⒈ They are talking about the coming weekend. 他们在谈论这个周末怎么过。

coming在句中是形容词,作“即得到来的”或“正在到来的”解。the coming weekend=the weekend that is coming,指本周的周末(即将到来的周末),但the coming week=the week that is coming,指的是下周(即next week)例如:

They want to go the Great Wall the coming Sunday. 本周日他们想去游览长城。

What do they plan to do the coming month? 下个月他们计划做什么?

⒉ Haven’t you heard of him? 难道佻没有听说过他吗?

hear of作“听说”,“听到说起”解,例如:

Have you ever heard of this kind of thing before? 你以前听说过这样的事吗?

I have heard of this person, but I don’t know him. 我听说过这个人,但不认识他。

如果后边接宾语从句,则不用of,例如:

I hear that some American students will come to study in our school next year. 我听说明年将有一些美国学生一我校来学习。

I hear that English teachers are badly needed in your school. 我听说你们学校非常需要英语老师。

hear from的意思是“收到……的来信”,例如:

Have you heard from your parents recently? 你最近收到父母的来信了吗?

I haven’t heard from them for a long time. 我已经很长时间没有收到他们的来信了。

⒊ I think you’d enjoy it. 我想你会喜欢它的。

You’d better hurry and buy a ticket then. 你最好赶快买一张票。

注意这个句子中的you’d都是缩略式,第一句的you’d是you would的缩略式,而第二句中的you’d是you had的缩略式。had better do sth最好做某事;had better not do sth最好不做某事。例如:

It’s cold outside. You’d better stay at home. 外边很冷,你最好待在家里。

You’d better not tell anyone about it. 你最好不要把这件事告诉任何人。

We’d better hurry up, or we’ll be late for class. 我们最好快点,否则就迟到了。

⒋ He writes most of his songs himself. 他唱的大多数歌曲都是他本人写的。

himself是反身代词,在句中作同位语,强调和它同位关系的代词he,可放在句尾,也可放在he的后面。例如:

The doctor said so himself. (The doctor himself said so) 医生亲口这样说的。

Did you see the manager himself ? 你见到经理本人了吗?

by oneself意思是“独自”,“独立地”,相当于alone,例如:

Can you finish this work all by yourself ? 你能独自一人完成这项工作吗?

She dare not go out all by herself at night. 她晚上不敢独自一个外出。

⒌They broadcast a programme of his music last month on the radio. 上个月电台广播了他的一个音乐节目。

broadcast (broadcast, broadcast)可以用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,意思是“(用无线电或电视)广播,播送(节目)”,“发表广播演说”等。例如:

The CCTV broadcasts the news at seven in the evening. 中央电视台晚上7点广播新闻节目。

He will broadcast on current affairs on TV this evening. 今晚,他将在电视上发表时势广播演说。

The Prime Minister will broadcast this evening. 首相将于今晚发表广播演说。

The BBC broadcasts all over the world. 英国广播公司向全世界播送节目。

The concert will be broadcast on the radio and on TV. 这场音乐会将在电台和电视中播出。

broadcast还可用作名词,作“广播”,“广播节目”解,例如:

They are listening to the broadcast of a football match now. 他们现在正在收听足球比赛的广播。

⒍Song writers are no longer writers about the modern value of the USA… 歌曲作者不再写美国的现代价值观……

no longer (not … any longer) 作“不再”解,通常放在行为动词的前面,如果是”be”动词,则放在后面,例如:

Mary no longer lives here. (Mary does not live here any longer. ) 玛丽不住在这儿了。

He is no longer a football player now. (He isn’t a football player any longer now.) 他现在已不再是一名足球运动员了。

⒎Instead they are writing once more about things that are common for everyone…而他们现在再一次写常人常事……

once more (once again) 作“再一次”解,例如:

Will you please explain it to me once more/ again? 请你再给我解释一下好吗?

I’d like to go and see him once again/more. 我很想再去见他一次。

⒏Money was also thought to be important. 金钱也被认为是重要的(主题)。

think作“认为”解时,有时跟带不定式to be的复合结构,即“think … to be …认为…是”。这一结构中的to be常可省略。例如:

We all thought him (to be) the best singer in out school我们都认为他是我们学校唱歌唱得最好的。

I think her (to be) the most suitalble person for this job. 我认为她是最适合做这项工作的人。

Some people think him (to be) a possible future champion. 有些人认为他可能是未来的冠军。

He was thought (to be) the best singer in our school他被认为是我们学校最好的歌手。

She is thought (to be) the most suitable person for this job. 她被认为最适合做这项工作的人。

He is thought (to be) a possible future champion.

⒐During these years many young students were angry with society, so songs were often full of anger. 在那些岁月里,许多年青学生对社会愤愤不平,因此,歌曲里往往充满着怒气。

be angry with sb生某人的气,be angry at/about sth因……而生气,例如:

He was angry with himself for having made such a stupid mistake. 他因为犯了这么愚蠢的错误而在生自己的气。

Don’t be angry with me about it. 不要因这件事而生我的气。

She was very angry at being delayed. 他因被耽误了而生气。

⒑Politcal leaders were not well thought of and those songs often made fun of them. 人们对政治领袖的看法不好,那些歌曲经常取笑他们的。

(1)think well/ highly of sb/sth对……评价高,以……印象好。例如:

His work is highly thonght of by the critics. 他的作品深受评论家的推崇。(评论家们对他的作品评价很高。)

I don’t think well of our new teacher. 我对我们新老师的印象不怎么好。

We all think highly of his research work in this field. 我们对他在这个领域中的研究工作倍加赞赏。

(2)fun是不可数名词,意思是“娱乐,乐趣,玩笑,有趣的人或事”等,在本句中make fun of sb是“取笑/嘲笑某人”的意思。例如:

We had lots of fun at the Amusement Park today. 我们今天在游乐园玩得很高兴。

What fun it will be when we all go on holiday together. 我们大家一起去度假那可太有意思了。

It’s not much fun going to a party alone. 独自一个人去参加聚会没有什么意思。

It is not right to make fun of people who stammer. 取笑口吃的人是不对的。

Swimming in the sea is great fun. 在大海中游泳是件很有趣的事。

⒒ Once the home of American country music was Nashville, Tennessee, Now, however, the music has reached all parts of the United States, from Los Angeles in the west to New York in the east. 美国乡村音乐的故乡是田纳西州的纳什维尔,而如今这种音乐已经传遍美国各地,从西部的洛杉机到东部的纽约。

注意:however和but的区别:

however在句中是用作副词,作“然而,但是,不过”解,用于言及既成事实时表示转折,通常用逗号分开,可以放在句首,也可以放在句中。例如:

His first response was to say no. Later, however, he changed his mind. 他最初的反应是不同意,但是后来他改变了主意。

I thonght those figures were correct. However, I have recently heard they were not. 我原以为那些数字是正确的,不过我最近听说那些数字并不正确。

We all tried our best. We lost the game, however. 我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了。

but是连词,作“但是,然而”解,连接两个并列的分句。例如:

Tom went to the party, but his brosker didn’t. 汤姆去参加聚会了,但他的兄弟没去。

He doesn’t like music but his wife does. 他不喜欢音乐,可他妻子却很喜欢。

⒓Singers do not just come from the States but from all over the world. 乡村音乐的歌手不仅来自美国,而且来自世界各地。

句中的just作“仅仅”解,”not + just…but”意思是“不仅……而且……”,相当于”not only… but also…”。例如:

He is not just a teacher but a writer. (He is not only a teacher but also a writer. ) 他不仅是教师,而且还是作家。

She can not just sing but dance as well. 他不仅会唱歌,而且还会跳舞。

⒔Country music today remains much the same as before. 今天的乡村音乐仍然同过去的差不多完全一样。

remain (continue to be )作“保持(某种状态),仍旧是剩下,留待以后去看,去做”解。例如:

After the fire, very little remained of my house. 火灾过后,寒舍所剩无几。

Much remains to be done. 要做的事还有很多。

It remains to be seen whether you are right. 你是否正确,以后可见分晓。

Ten years later, his friend Tom became an angineer but he remained a worker. 十年后,他的朋友汤姆当上了工程师,而他仍旧是个工人。

He remained silent. 他保持沉默。

 

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit12.doc

标题 章节 第十二单元

关键词 内容

一教学目标

运用所学语言,讨论如何学好英语,并围绕这一题材,完成教科书和册中规定的听说,写的任务。阅读课文“English on the air”深刻理解,并完成有关课文内容的练习。

 

二、语法

学习不定式当主语的用法。 It’s…to do …

 

三、日常交际用语

That’s easier said than done!

I’m sure…

 

提出建议

Why not go tomorrow? Why don’t you go tomorrow? You’d better leave now.

Good idea/That’s a good idea. What about going there? Shall we go now?

相互鼓励及应答

The more you work,the more you will get . Work hard,and you’ll make progress.

Thank you for your advice. That will be a great help to me. Thanks,I must try to do that.

四、重点难点解析

1.The more you listen to English,the easier it becomes.英语你听的越多,学起来就越容易。

The more …,the more 的句型表示:越…,就越…例:

 ①The harder you work,the greater progress you will make .工作越努力,成绩就越大。

 ②The more a person reads,the wiser he will becomes.一个人书读得书越多,就会越聪明。

该句型常可省略某些成分,在一些民语和谚语中尤为如此

 ③The sooner,the better=The sooner we do it ,the better it will be 。越快越好。

2.That’s easier said than done! 说比做容易!(谚语)如:Well begun is half done,好的开始等于成功的一半。

3.Why don’t you buy a radio? 你为什么不买一个收音机呢?

向朋友提出忠告和建议时,用以下几种句型。1)Why don’t you…?

2)Why not…? 3)You’d better do sth. 4)How about doing…?

5)Would you like to do…?

①Why don’t you go for a walk? 你为什么不去散散步呢?

②It looks like rain.Why don’t you take a raincoat? 好象要下雨了,你为什么不带雨衣呢?

③It is very hot today.You’d better stay home. 今天天气太热,你最好呆在家里

④You’d better buy a radio to follow the English programmes. 你最好买台收音机去听英语节目。

⑤What about going out for a picnic? 出去野餐怎么样?

⑥What about asking Mr Li for some advice? 征求一下李先生的意见怎么样?

⑦Would you like to go with us?你愿意和我们一起去吗?

Why not 是Why don’t you 的省略。

You’d better是You had better的省略。 否定形式为You’d better not do sth.

⑧It’s snowing. You’d better not ride your bike to work.下雪了,你最好别骑车上班。

4.And why not buy some English tapes and some books to go with them?

=Why not buy some English tapes and some books that accompany the tapes. 为什么不买一些英文磁带和跟磁带配套的书呢?

Go with “和…相配” “协调” These new curtains don’t go well with your carpet.这些新窗帘与你的地毡不协调.

5.advice 不可数名词.可用a piece of advice 一条建议.some advice.一些建议.advice的搭配有give (提出)/take follow(接受)/ask sb.for(征求)/advice 表示有关…的建议用介词on

①Can you give me some advice on how to improve my English. 你能给我提一些关于怎样学好英语的建议吗?

②Whenever I have difficulty in doing anything,I will ask my father for advice 不管什么时候我遇到困难,我都会向父亲请教.

③The patient should follow the doctor’s advice.病人应该听医生的话.

6.It isn’t difficult to find out information about the programmes.要查询有关的节目并不难. It 作形式主语It is adj/n.+to do sth.

①It’s important for us to read widely.广泛阅读对我们来说很重要.

②It is necessary to ask her for help.要求她帮忙是必要的.

③It’s kind of you to say so .你这么说真是太感谢你了.

④It is our duty to help poor people.帮助穷人是我们的责任.

⑤It is necessary to use a short-wave radio to pick up the programmes.必须用一台短波收音机才能收听这些节目.

“pick up”表示 “收听,收到”

My radio can pick up VOA very clearly 我的收音机收听 “美国之音”很清楚.

We picked up a voice for help from the burning house 我们听到那着火的房子里有人喊救命.

“pick up” 表示 “捡起”

please pick p all the pieces of paper 请把所有的纸片都拴起来.

“pick up ”表示 “(用车)接”

please pick me up at the station.请到车站接我.

7.If you do have difficulties,it is better to try once again another day

如果你确实有困难,最好改天再试. 句中的do为助动词,用来加强语气用在肯定陈述句中,根据和人称可以分别用do,dose,did 加动词原形 如:

I do think he is wrong 我确实认为他是错的.

He didn’t come yesterday.but he did give us a phone call 他昨天没来,但的确给我们打过电话.

Mary dose speak Japanese well. Mary日语确实讲的不错.

8.You can write to BBC English and ask for any information you need. 你可以给BBC写信要你所需要的任何信息.

“ask for” “作要求得到”, “要求给予”解例:

①The students asked for more time to review all the lessons.学生要求更多的复习时间.

②He was rather sorry that he didn’t ask for the job.他很遗憾当时没要求得到这份工作.

9.Such as:

表示 “象…这样的” “诸如…之类”

①He knows several languages,such as English,French and German.他懂得几门外语,如英语,法语和德语.

②Cold-blooded animals such as snakes and frogs have to go to sleep in winter.诸如蛇和青蛙之类的冷血动物在冬天就要冬眠.

③Such languages as Chinese,Russian,German and Japanese are difficult to learn well. 像中文,俄文,德文,日文等语言很难学好.

10.practise 的用法 “练习”, “训练” practise doing/n.

①We practised pronouncing the sound again and again.练习听力是非常重要的.

②He is practising singing the new song.他正练习唱那首歌.

11.They are of great help to learners of English 这些对英语初学者很有用be of+n 相当于be+adj用来表示主语的特征常可这样用的词 有:importance.use ,value.help

①Sports can be of great help to us=sports can be helpful to us .

②His advice was of no use at all=His advice was useful to us .

五、典型例题及分析

1.Mike me she was coming.

A.did tell B.did told C.does told D,does tell

2.We have not had for many weeks.

A.so cold a day like this B,so cold day as this

C.such a cold day as this Dsuch cold day like this

3.It’s very necessary to practise in learning foreign languages.

A.Listening B.Listening to C.to listen D.to listen to

4.It’s very clever the boy to make such an important experiment.

A.for B.with C.of D.to

5.-Did the medicine make you feel better?

--No,The more , I feel.

A.medicine I take;the worse. B.I take medicine;the worse.

C.medicine I take;and the worse. D.I take medicine;worse

6.It’s getting late,Why not a taxi.It’s faster than bus .

A.take B.taking C.to take, D.we take

7.---“What about the result of your exam?”

---“Not very good, ”

A.surely B.certainly C.I’m afraid D.I think so

8.---If you listen to the teacher attentively in class,you’re sure to make much progress.

--- .

A.You need more practice. B.Seeing is believing

C.That’s easier said than done. D.I shouldn’t turn to

9.This dictionary is not to the middle-school students.

A.of great useful B.great useful

C.of great use D.very much useful

10.Your trousers don’t your shoes.

A.go with B.go over to C.do with. D.turn to

 

答案:

1-5 ACACA 6-10 ACCCA

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit12.1.doc

标题 Unit 12

章节 第十二单元

关键词 内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

★ 单元背景知识介绍

  同学们,你想迅速提高听力吗 ?BBC 英语教学节目可以助你一臂之力。BBC 是 British Broadcasting Corporation (英国广播公司) 的缩写。它是为英国国内及国外提供广播和电视服务的非商业性公立组织。BBC 最早是作为私人企业成立的。1922年2月14日开始广播,该公司成立于 1926 年底,由英国六家大无线电广播公司和电器制造公司组成。1927年收归国有,1929年秋开始试播黑白电视,1936 年正式创办“英国电视台”,1967 年播出彩色电视。BBC 总部设在伦敦摄政公园 ( Regent's Park)以南的邮政塔(P. O. Tower)附近,在舰队街 (Fleet Street)不远有一座 20 层的对外光比大楼。全公司共有工作人员 25,000 多名。对内广播的经费主要来自收音机、电视机用户的执照费,对外广播的经费由政府拨给。对外广播创办于 1932 年,用 39 种语言播出。BBC 以提供最新消息、娱乐及教育为目的。这些节目不受政府控制,不受其它机构的影响,同时不对时事或公共政策发表自己的意见。

  BBC 拥有两个全国性的电视频道,即 BBC- 1 和 BBC - 2 ,三个无线电广播网,即家庭服务网,轻松娱乐节目网,专为特殊兴趣而服务的第三节目网。第三节目网有四个主要节目:古典音乐、学习课程、运动及最著名的高级艺术、知识性节目。BBC 提供 30 多种外语节目。

★ 大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

Suggestions (建议)

  以建议或者劝告的形式要某人做一件事,不同于直接命令,因为说话人只是提出建议,而把做与不做的决定权留给听话人。选择表达法时需要考虑建议之事的难度及交际双方的关系。事情的难度越大,两者的关系越远,表达法则越需要客气。

Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语

  1. The + 比较级 … , the + 比较极 …… “越是……,越是……”

   The more you watch , the more you laugh . 你越看,你会越笑。

   The harder you work , the greater progress you will make . 你越是用功,进步就越大。

  2. That's easier said than done . 说着容易,做着难。

  3. Thanks . I must try to do that . 谢谢,我一定会尽力的。

  4. Do you think that would help ? 你认为那样行吗?

  5. I'm sure you can get there in this way . 我可以说用此法你一定能到达那里。

  6. Why not have some beef ?=What/ How + about having some beef ? 吃点牛肉怎么样 ?

  7. You can / could clean the office while I'm away . 我不在时你可以打扫办公室。

   You might have a look at these pictures .=You might as well have a look at these pictures . 你不妨随便瞧瞧这些画。

  8. Have you ever thought of going to see a doctor ? 你想过去看医生吗 ?

  9. Would / Might it be idea to leave your luggage at your friend's ?

   Don't you think it might be an idea to ask for some information ? 你不认为索取一些资料是个好主意吗 ?

  10. If I were you , I'd give up smoking .

  11. I wonder if you'd like to do some shopping before you leave . 不知你走以前是否想去买点东西。

  12. You'd better eat less at supper .

  13. I suggest you should take more exercise . 我建议你要多锻炼。

  14. I f I make a suggestion , it's easy to solve this problem .

  15. Have you considered paying a visit to Beijing ? 你考虑到要去北京吗 ?

  16. Would it be a good idea to invite your neighbours to our party ?

  17. My advice would be to ask him to help us .

  18. If you take my advice , I'll be very satisfied .

【指点迷津】

★ 单元重点新词透视

  1. impossible 不可能的;办不到的 (副词是 impossibly , 名词是 impossibility)

   That's an impossible plan . 那是一个不可能实现的计划。

   Such a task is impossible . 这样的任务是不可能完成的。

  〖测试要点〗

  (1) 不能用人作主语,可以用物或者 it 作形式主语。例如:

   Nothing is impossible to a willing mind . (谚语) 世上无难事,只怕有心人。

   The accident seemed impossible . 这意外事故似乎是不可能的。

   It is impossible to get a taxi on such a rainy day . 在这样的下雨天是不可能搭到出车的。

   It is impossible for her to eat up such a big cake , isn't it ? 要她吃完如此一个大饼是不可能的,对不 ?

  (2) impossible 作宾补。Illness made it impossible for him to go on with his work .

  (3) 用于主语从句中。It is impossible + that 干……是不可能的

   It's impossible for one and one to make three . 一加一不可能等于三。

  2. advice 作不可数名词是“忠告;劝告;建议;指点”。

   Good advice is beyond price . (谚语)忠言乃无价之宝。

   Her advice to me was to work harder .

  〖测试要点〗

  (1) 表示可数时可以通过量词 piece , bit , word 来连接。如:She gave me a piece of advice .

  (2) 常见的搭配有:give / offer sb advice on sth 给某人做……的建议。follow / take one's advice 接受或者采纳某人的建议。disregard / refuse / turn a deaf ear to + one's advice 拒绝某人的建议。ask for one's advice=ask sb for some advice=ask advice of sb 征求某人的建议。act on one's advice 按照某人的建议做。give sb some advice on + 疑问词 + to do 建议某人干……。

  (3) advice 后可以跟从句,从句中要用虚拟语气。

   My advice is that he (should) keep his promise . 我劝告他还是信守诺言。

  (4) advice 的动词是 advise , 其后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。其搭配有:advise sb to do , advise sb + 疑问词 + to do , advise sb against sth , advise sb on sth 。

  特别注意:advise 后没有 sb 时,要直接接动名词。

   He advises waiting till proper time . 他建议等到恰当的时机。

   They strongly advised him to accept the present .

   The doctor advised taking a week's rest .

   Please advise me what to do next . 请指点一下下步怎么办 。

   I advised her to give up smoking .=I advise her that she should give up smoking .

  4. service 作不可数名词是“服务;效劳”。作可数名词是“贡献;帮忙;服务机构”

   His services to China have been great .他对中国的贡献很大。

   Do you need the services of a lawyer ? 你需要请律师吗 ?

   The food is good at this hotel , but the service is poor .

   He did me a great service . 他帮了我很大的忙。

   the World Service 国际广播,China Travel Service 中国旅行社,air mail service 航空邮政业务,the telephone service 电话业务

  〖测试要点〗

   service 的动词是 serve ,要注意为某人服务后不能用介词 for 。如:

   How can we serve you ? (营业时对顾客的用语) 需要我们为您服务吗 ?/ 您要买什么 ?

   Are you being served ? 您已经点过菜了吗 ?/ 有没有人来照料你 ?

   We must serve the people heart and soul . 我们必须全心全意地为人民服务。

  5. special 特别的,专门的,独特的 (副词是:specially)

   This is a special case . 这是个非常特殊的例子。

   - What's new ? 有什么消息吗 ?

   - Nothing special . 没有什么特别的。

   He has a special interest in physics . 他对物理有特别的兴趣。

  〖测试要点〗辨析 special 和 especial

  special 指所描述的或者修饰的事物在一般场合具有与众不同的性质、特性、个性或者用途,并表示它所修饰的事物是为特定目的而设立,且限定在一定的范围或用途。special 常修饰下列名词:occasion 场合,case 情况,purpose 目的,example , attention , mention , test , way 。

   This is a special soap for dry skin . 这是专门用于干性皮肤的肥皂。

   This is my father's special chair , no one else may sit in it .

   There is a special repair shop on the other side of the street . 街对面有家特约维修店。

  especial 强调超出一般的程度。如;

   This is an especial meeting for me .

   You must pay especial attention to this question .

★ 单元重点词组扫瞄

Lesson 45

  1. need lots of practice 需要大量的练习

   If you want to improve you spoken English , you need lots of practice .

  2. on the radio 在(从)无线电广播中

   You can listen to China Radio International or BBC English programmes on the radio . 你可以通过收音机听到中国国际电台或BBC的英语节目。

   I heard on the radio that it's going to snow the day after tomorrow .

   注意:by radio 通过拍发无线电报,通过无线电收音机

   The programme English By Radio is now on the air . 现在正播放《广播英语》节目。

   We have to send her a message by radio as soon as possible .

  3. go with 和……在一起;和相配

   Don't leave me alone , let me go with you .

   That tie doesn't go with the suit . 那条领带和这身西装不配。

   Disease often goes with dirt . 疾病总是和肮脏密形影不离。

  4. give advice to sb on sth 向某人提出……建议

   Give advice to your friend on how to improve his English .

Lesson 46

  1. on the air 在广播中,在播送中

   What's on the air now ?

   The TV play is on the air at 22:00 .

   These programmes comes on the air every day . 天天都有这些节目。

  2. in the center of 在……的中心(或者说是中央)

   The traffic accident happened right in the center of the city .

   In the centre of the hall stood a Christmas tree .

  3. with the name 名为……

   His father works in the tall white building with the name “Bush House”. 他的父亲就在那座名为“布什”的大厦上班。

  4. from mouth to mouth 口口相传

   The story about her was told from mouth to mouth .

  5. change from A to/into B “由A 变成B;把A换成B”

   She changed from her express train to a slow one .

   In winter , when the temperature is below zero , water changes from liquid into solid .

   change sth from A to/ into B “把A变成B”

   Hard work has changed her from a young lady into an old woman .

   注意:from … to … 中的名词前常不用 the 。又如:from age to age 世世代代,from cover to cover 从首页到末页,from door to door 挨家挨户,from place to place , from side to side , from day to day , from time to time , from hand to hand , from shop to shop。

  6. between A and B“在A 和B 之间”(可以是空间、时间、数量、地点、相互关系之间)

   A straight line is the shortest distance between two points . 直线是两点之间最短的距离。

   How far is the distance between Beijing and Guangzhou ?

   The Yalu River runs between China and Korea .

   Let's meet at the gate between 7 and 8 o'clock .

   He is a servant between 50 and 60 (years old ).

  7. sth be the easiest to do 最容易干

   These Japanese programmes are the easiest to follow .

  8. find out 了解,打听,弄清楚,发现

   The police have found out the cause of his death .

   The teacher got angry when finding out that the students had been cheating in the examinations .

  9. ask for 要求得到;要求给予;要求见

   He asked for the taxi to come at 8 a.m.

   The workers are asking for another increase in pay .

   There's a girl at the door , asking for Mr Li .

  10. pick up 收听到;拾起;拿起;接某人上车;学习

   They picked up signals for help from the burning plane .

   This kind of radio can pick up the programmes broadcast by BBC easily .

  11. have difficulties 有具体的困难

   have some (little , a little , no , a lot of ) difficulty / trouble + (in) + -ing 在干……有困难

  12. for example=for instance例如

   take … for example 以……为例

   A lot of guests here , for example , Tom , would rather have white coffee .

   Take our headmaster for example , he knows Australia well .

  13. tens of thousands of …=thousands upon/ and thousands of … 数一万计的……;无数

   Tens of thousands of foreigners come to visit China every year .

   There are tens of thousands of stars like the sun in the sky .

   After thousands and thousands of years Australia had broken away from the Asian and European continents .

  14. be well received 深受欢迎

   Many of the German programmes are well received .

  15. such as 例如。对前面的名词复数起举例作用,所列举的事物是前面复数名词所包含的部分内容。

   English is spoken in many countries , such as Australia , Canada .

   We are in need of some reference books , such as a grammar , a dictionary .

   There are different forms of energy , such as heat energy , sound energy , electric energy and chemical energy .

   注意:such + 名词 + as +名词“像什么之类”。如;

   Such books as this are easy to buy .

   He is such a good teacher as we all like .

  16. the answer to the question

  17. join sth together 把……连在一起

  18. at the festival 在节日里

  19. be short of 缺乏

   It's expensive for us to use electricity for cooking because we are short of electricity .

  20. turn down 把……关小,把音量调低

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

★ 单元核心句型剖析

  1. ( Lesson 45 ) 在对话中有这样一句:What do you find hardest in English ? 你觉得学英语最难的是什么 ?

   〖剖析〗本句是 find 的复合结构。hardest=the most difficult 作宾补。又如:

   He found it impossible to see her .

   能作 find 的复合宾语的有:名词、现在分词、过去分词、副词、介词、形容词、to be 。

   We found it a difficult problem to answer .

   She found him waiting for her in front of the office .

   We find this county greatly changed .

   We entered her house ,but found her out .

   We find these children at play .

   I found the singer to be a girl of 7 years of age .

  2. ( Lesson 45 ) The more you listen to English , the easier it becomes . 英语听得越多,它就越容易懂。

   〖剖析〗(1)“The + 比较级 (从句) ,the + 比较级 (主句)”结构相当于汉语的“越是……,越是……”,前部是主句,后部是从句。在这种结构中,比较级词可以一样,也可以不一样,可以是形容词或者副词,成递进或者递减。如:

   The more you practise , the more you know .

   The busier he is , the happier he feels .

   The sooner you do it , the better it will be .

   (2) 在时态上,如果主句为将来时,从句可以用现在时代替将来时。并且,句子常省去相同的成分。例如;

   The more you get together , the happier you will be .

   The less said about it , the better . 少说为佳。

   The more haste , the less speed . 欲速则不达。

  3. ( Lesson 46 ) If you do have difficulties , it is better to try once more another day . 如果确实有困难,最好改天再试试。

   〖剖析〗此句中的 do 是助动词起加强语气的作用。要注意 do 随着主语的变化而变化。该结构还何以用于祈使句的前面。如:

   She does look nice today .

   I did meet her in the street yesterday .

   Do have another cup of coffee !

   Do be a good boy !

  4. ( Lesson 46 ) They are of great help to learners of English . 它们对英语学习的人来说大有帮助。

   〖剖析〗“of + 抽象名词”表示主语的性质及属性。该结构可以转换为抽象名词的形容词。如:

   It is of great help to read such a book .=It is very useful to read such a book .

   注意该句型的名词前可以使用表示程度的 little , some , a bit , much , no 等。如:

   What he will buy her is of little use . 他给她买什么都用处不大。

【妙文赏析】

Love Letters

  Jenny Gordon was a very kind and beautiful woman and before she married , many men were in love with her . Many of them wrote to her , telling her how wonderful she was , how much they loved her and wanted to marry her .

  Jenny kept all these letters . She tied them up with a red ribbon and put them away in an old box . She never looked at them as she was happily married , however , they were a part of her life and she didn't want to throw them away .

  Jenny had a daughter , Sue . Sue was a six-year-old girl .

  One day , Jenny had to leave Sue alone for half a day . “Now be a good girl ,”she said . “Play quietly . If you need anything , go to the lady next door . ”

  When she returned home , she asked Sue , “Have you been a good girl ?”

  “Oh , yes , Mommy , ”Sue said .

  “What did you do while I was out ?”Jenny asked her .

  “I played mailman , ”Sue told her .

  “How could you play mailman , darling ?”Jenny asked her .

  “You didn't have any letters .”

  “Oh , yes I did , Mommy , ”Sue said . “I found some in an old box upstairs . They were tied up with a red ribbon . I put one in every mailbox in the street . Wasn't I a good girl ?”

  〖赏析〗通过阅读全文可以知道是Sue 好奇地把妈妈收藏的爱情之信一一投进别人的邮箱。这下子可就要沸腾了。当Jenny Gordon 听到女儿那天真、可爱的当了邮递员的回答时,她过去的一切前被暴了光,她可能五雷轰顶,也可能哭笑不得。

【思维体操】

THE HOUNDS OF BASKERVILLES (猎犬)

柯南道尔 著

Chapter XIII

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF DR . WASTON

( 华生医师日记摘录 )

  Here are some extracts (摘录) from the diary of Dr. Waston . From them the readers will learn of the events that happened after his last report to Sherlock Holmes .

  October 16th . A dull and rainy day . The house is as unpleasant as the weather . Everything is gloomy around and I myself have a feeling that there is danger here , though I cannot guess from where it comes . I certainly don't believe in anything that has something to do with God , but facts are facts and there is something very strange about the moor .

  Twice with my own ears I have heard a sound which was like the distant barking of a dog . But if there is a hound on the moor , where is it hidden ? Where does it get its food ? Another strange thing is this unknown man on the rock . He is not one of those whom I have seen here and I have now seen all the neighbours . Is he a friend or an enemy ? Is it possible that he is the man who followed Sir Henry in London ? If only I could find out who he is !

  This morning there was a small scene after breakfast . Barrymore said that we had no right to hunt down Selden after Mrs. Barrymore had told us of her brother's hiding-place .

  “The man is dangerous ,” answered Sir Henry . “You know that there are some lonely houses on the moor . It is necessary to let the police know where he is .”

  “Please , sir , don't call the police . I promise that he will not attack anybody . In two or three days he will be on his way to South America and will never trouble anyone again . ” Begged Barrymore .

  He begged so hard for the sake of his poor wife that Sir Henry agreed not to let the police know anything about Selden . Barrymore thanked him and turned to go, but then hesitated and came back .

  “ You have been so kind to us , sir , that I want to tell you something which maybe has something to do with the death of Sir Charles . I have spoken to no one about it yet .”

  We both jumped to our feet .

  “ Do you know how he died ? ”

  “ No , sir. But I know why he was at the gate that night . He had to meet a woman there . I don't know her name , but I can give you the initials (姓名的开头字母) . They are L.L.”

  “ How do you know this , Barrymore ? ”

  “ Well , Sir Henry , your uncle got a letter that morning . It was addressed in a woman's hand . I didn't think of this letter at the time , for Sir Charles usually got many letters . But only a few weeks ago my wife was cleaning Sir Charles' study and she found the ashes of a burned letter in his study . The greater part of it was burned , but one little bit remained and the writing could still be recognised . It said:‘please , please , burn this letter , and be at the gate by ten o'clock . L. L.’”

  “ Have you got this bit of the letter ? ”

  “ No , sir, it crumpled (易碎的) all to bits after we had touched it .”

  “I cannot understand , Barrymore , why did you not speak about it before .”

  “ Well , sir , on one hand , we had our own trouble with Selden at that time , on the other hand , we both loved Sir Charles and thought it would be better not to tell anybody that there was a lady in the case . But now , sir , you have been kind to us , and I feel that I must tell you all I know about it .”

  When Barrymore had gone , Sir Henry turned to me .

  “ Well , Waston , what do you think we must do ? ”

  “ I shall report to Holmes at once . Maybe he will come here himself .”

  October 17th. It has been raining all day . In the evening I put on my raincoat and went for a walk on the moor . I wanted to see the rock where the stranger had stood that night . All was silent there and I could not find any trace of the unknown man . As I was walking back , I was overtaken by Dr. Mortimer driving home in his dog-cat . He was returning from one of the distant farms . He invited me into his cart and told me that he was very much troubled , for his little spaniel had disappeared on the moor . I thought of the dreadful Grimpen Mire and said nothing .

  “By the way , Mortimer , ”I asked a little later , “I suppose you know all the people on the moor .”

  “I think so .”

  “ Do you know any woman in the neighbourhood whose initials are L.L.? ”

  “He thought a little and then said that it probably was Laura Lyons the daughter of Sir Henry's neighbour - old Frankland . He told me her story. She had married an artist named Lyons who soon deserted her . Her father refused to help her , because she had married without his permission . Besides he had very little money himself . The neighbours were sorry for her , and several of them helped her to learn typewriting and get some work . Stapleton and Sir Charles were among those who gave her money . She was now living at Coombe Tracey .

  I didn't tell Mortimer why I was so much interested in the woman , but tomorrow I shall go to Coombe Tracey and try to find her . She may help to make things much clearer .

  There is one more incident to put down on this unpleasant day . It is my conversation with Barrymore .

  “ Has your wife's brother gone at last? ”

  “ I don't know , sir , for I did not see him when I brought his food three days ago . ”

  “ But did you find the food at that place the next time ?”

  “ No , I didn't , but perhaps the other man took it . ”

  “ You know that there is another man then ? Have you seen him ? ”

  “ No , sir. but Selden told me about him , a week ago . ”

  So Selden had seen that other man too ! Who is he and what is he doing there all alone ? Now I must devote all my energy to try and solve this new problem .

Chapter XIV

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF DR . WASTON

( 华生医师日记摘录 )

( Continued )

  October 18th. At breakfast I told Sir Henry about my meeting with Dr. Mortimer and our conversation about Laura Lyons . It was decided that I must go to Coombe Tracey alone , and I started in the afternoon . Mrs. Lyons was at home and received me . My first impression of her was that she was very beautiful , but when I looked at her more attentively I noticed something impolite and hard in her face . She asked me about the reason of my visit .

  “ I have come to speak to you about Sir Charles Baskerville .”

  “ What can I tell you about him ? All I can say is that he was very kind to me and helped me much . ”

  “ Were you ever in touch with each other by writing letters ?”

  The lady looked angry . “ What is the purpose of your question ? ” she asked sharply .

  “ I want to avoid getting you out of trouble , Mrs. Lyons. It's better to speak here than at the police station . ”

  She was silent and her face was very pale . “ Well , I will answer your questions . Ask me what you like . ”

  “ I repeat my question . Did you write to Sir Charles often ? ”

  “ I wrote to him only once or twice to thank him for his kindness .”

  “ Did you ever meet him ? ”

  “ Yes , several times , when he came to Coombe Teacey . ”

  “ Did you ever write to Sir Charles , asking him to meet you at the moor gate ? ”

  Mrs. Lyons was now red with anger . Certainly not .”

  “ Did you not write to him on the day of his death ?”

  Her face grew white again . She could not speak .

  “ Tell me why you wrote to Sir Charles and asked him to be at the gate that night . Why did you beg him to burn the letter ? ”

  Mrs. Lyons was now so pale that I thought she would faint .

  “ This is a private matter . I cannot tell you .” she answered almost in a whisper .

  “ Mrs. Lyons . If I have to call in the aid of the police , you will find how serious your position is .”

  “ I will tell you then ,” she answered through tears . “ My life has been very hard . I had made an unhappy marriage and my father refused to have anything to do with me . I could not get a divorce (离婚) from my husband without a large sum of money . I thought that if Sir Charles heard the story from my own lips he would not refuse to help me . I wrote to him , but I was afraid that somebody might see the letter , so I begged Sir Charles to burn it .”

  “ But why did you ask him to meet you at the gate at such a late hour? ”

  “ Because I had only just learned that he would go to London the next morning .”

  “ Well , what happened when you went there ? ”

  “ I never went there .”

  “ Mrs. Lyons ! ”

  “ I swear that I am speaking the truth . At the last moment I received help from another person .”

  “ But why did you not warn Sir Charles ? ”

  “ It was too late . I wanted to write and explain everything the following morning but I saw the report of his death in the papers .”

  The woman's story sounded truthful . I could get nothing more out of her, though I felt that she had not told me everything . Why had she lied at first ? Why had she been silent at the time of Sir Charles's death ? I asked myself that over and over .

  On my way home I decided to explore the moor once more , and try to find some traces of the mysterious stranger whom I had seen on the moor . There were many deserted huts scattered on the moor , and I was sure that the man must be hiding in one of them . I climbed a hill to have a better look at the surroundings when suddenly I saw a small figure on the top of one of the hills at the end of the path . The day was clear and , though the distance was great , I could see that it was the figure of a boy carrying a small package on his shoulder . In another moment he had disappeared behind the hill . I walked quickly in the same direction , but I failed . He was nowhere to be seen . There was silence around and I felt lonely and frightened . The huts were all quite ruined , as nobody had lived in them for many years . At last I came upon a hut which had something like a roof over it . My heart beat fast . I thought that this must be the hut where the stranger was hiding . I put my hand upon my revolver and looked in . The place was empty , but there were many signs that somebody lived there . Some blankets lay on the stone floor and a basin of water stood in the corner . In the middle of the hut lay a small package . It looked like the one I had seen on the boy's shoulder . It contained a loaf of bread and some meat . Under it was a sheet of paper . “Dr. Waston has gone to Coombe Tracey ” was written on it . It was I then , not Sir Henry , who was followed . What did all these mean ? Who could live in this lonely hut on the moor ?

  Outside the sun was setting . All seemed peaceful in the golden evening light , yet my heart was full of fear as I sat in the dark corner of the hut , waiting for the coming of the stranger . And then at last I heard him . Far away , then nearer and nearer came his steps . There was a long pause which showed that he had stopped . I did not move , but held my revolver ready . The footsteps was closer again and a shadow fell across the opening of the hut .

  “ It's a lovely evening , my dear Waston ,” said a well-known voice . “ Come outside , please . ”

Chapter XV

EXTRACTS FROM THE DIARY OF DR. WASTON

( 华生医师日记摘录 )

(Continued )

  For a moment or two I was so much surprised that I could neither move nor speak . Then my senses and voice came back to me . “ Holmes , Holmes , is that really you ? ” I cried .

  “ Come out of the hut , and please be careful with your pistol .” said he .

  He was thin and looked tired , but his shirt was as white as if he were in Baker Street , and his eyes were laughing as he asked : “ Why don't you say you are surprised ? ”

  “ My dear Holmes , I am so surprised and I am so glad to see you ,” I answered shaking his hands .

  “ If you are surprised to see me , I am just as surprised to find you in this  old hut . I understood that you were here only when I was about 20 steps from the hut .

  “ Oh , you saw my footprints , of course ? ”

  “ No , not your footprints , but the cigarette that you threw down when you entered the hut . We have lived together so long that I know your cigarettes well . But how did you find my hiding-place ? ”

  “ I saw a boy carrying a package on his shoulder . He was climbing this hill and I followed him . ”

  “ That was Cartwright , the boy who often helps me . He is very clever and active and has brought me food and clean suits . ”

  “ But my dear Holmes , why did you not trust me ? Why did you keep me in the dark ? I thought you were in London .”

  “ My dear Waston , you must not be angry with me . Your reports have been of great help to me . I beg you to forgive me . I was obliged to cheat you , for I knew that this matter was very dangerous and difficult , and I could not leave you here alone . At the same time I thought it better to keep my presence a secret from everybody , even from you . I have discovered many things living on the moor . Do not ask me for details yet , but I can tell you that in a day or two . My nets will close upon the murderer , for I know now that there is a cold-blooded murder in the case.”

  “ But why does the boy follow me ? What does this note mean ? ”

  “ I wanted to know what you had decided to do . If you had not gone to Coombe Tracey today , I should have gone there tomorrow myself . Mrs. Lyons is the only person who may help us in this matter . ”

  The sun had set and the air had grown cold . We went into the hut and sat down on the blankets that lay in the corner . I told Holmes about my conversation with Laura Lyons . He took great interest in it and when I had finished he said : “Do you know that this lady is Stapleton's sweet heart ?

  “ I did not know it , ” I answered .

  “ There can be no doubt about it . They meet , keep in touch , and have a complete understanding between them . It is he who told her that Sir Charles was going to London , and it is he that offered her money at the last moment . ”

  “ But why , Holmes ? ”

  “ Because he wanted Sir Charles to be alone at the gate .”

  As we sat in the darkness of that lonely hut on the moor , Holmes told me what he had found out during that time . When he learned from my report that Stapleton had been a schoolmaster in the North of England , he made inquiries . It appears that Stapleton had robbed the school where he taught and fled from that part of the country , with his name changed .”

  “ The lady whom you call Miss Stapleton is in fact his wife ,” said Holmes.

  “ His wife ! Is it possible ? Why then did he allow Sir Henry to fall in love with her ? ”

  “That only helped him in his plans . But he did not allow Sir Henry to make love to her . You told me that yourself in your report . ”

  “ And how do you explain all this ? ”

  “ He hoped that it would help him in his ill plans , ” Holmes answered . “ Then he must be our enemy - the man who followed us in London .”

  “ I think so .”

  “ But if he has a wife , what could he promise to Mrs. Lyons ? ”

  “ Your talk with the lady shows that she hoped to become Stapleton's wife after a divorce from her husband . ”

  As I listened to Holmes , I began to see something terrible in that colourless man with his straw hat and his butterfly-net . A cunning man with a smiling face and a murderous heart . “One last question , Holmes . What is the meaning of all this ? ”

  “ It is murder , Waston , cold-blooded murder . Do not ask me about the details yet . In a day or two I shall know everything , but there is one danger - it's that the murder will act before we are ready . So until then look after Sir Henry . Even now I am sorry you are not with him .”

  A loud scream full of horror and fear broke the silence of the moor . We both jumped to our feet and dashed out of the hut .

  “ Oh , my God ! What is it ? What does it mean ? ” I exclaimed .

  “ Hush ! Hush (切莫出声)!” whispered Holmes .

  The cry was repeated nearer and louder and more terrible than before .

  “ Where is it ? ” Holmes whispered again and I felt that even he was frightened .

  “ There , I think , ” I pointed into the darkness .

  Again the cry turned up , but now a new sound was heard , like the growling (狂叫)of a dog .

  “ The hound ! Come , Waston , come , or we may be too late . ”

  He ran over the moor and I followed him . The loud cries were repeated somewhere quite near . Then we heard a heavy fall and all was silent .

  “ He has beaten us , Waston . We are too late . ”

  Blindly we ran through the darkness . The moor was now quite dark and we could see nothing .

  We stopped and Holmes struck a match . By its light we noticed something not far from the place where we stood . When we came nearer , Holmes struck another match and with horror we saw that it was Sir Henry Baskerville . We both recognized the brown suit he had worn in London . We stood near the body , and our hearts were full of sorrow and despair .

  “ Oh , why did I not act before ,” cried Holmes , “ and you , Waston , why did you leave him ? ”

  “ Oh , Holmes , I shall never forgive myself .”

  “ I am more guilty (负有责任)than you , Waston . But how could I know that he would go out alone in spite of my instructions ? ”

  “ My God . We heard his screams and yet we could not save him . Where is the hound now ? And where is Stapleton , the murderer ? ”

  “ He will answer for this . But now we must send for help . We cannot carry him all the way to the Hall .”

  He bent over the body and suddenly let out a cry of joy .

  “ A beard ! A beard ! ” he exclaimed , and began dancing and laughing .

  “ My God , Holmes . Are you mad ? ”

  “ The man has a beard ! It's not Sir Henry ! ”

  We turned thr body over and looked into the dead face of - Selden - the escaped prisoner . Then in a moment all was clear to me . I remembered that some days before Sir Henry had given Barrymore his old clothes , and Barrymore had clearly passed them on to Selden to help him in his escape . But there really was a hound on the moor , for we had both heard its growls . Obviously the animal had chased the prisoner . In his terror he had fallen over a large stone and broken his head . There was blood on it . But why had he been so terrified ? Where had the hound disappeared ? Why had it chased Selden ? This was still a mystery .

  “ Why can't we arrest Stapleton at once , Holmes ? ”

  “ Because we can't prove much yet . we cannot prove the connection between him and the hound . If we are not careful , he may escape . But what's this , Waston ? It's Stapleton himself coming across the moor . Not a word to show your suspicions (怀疑) or all is lost ! ”

  “ Hello , Dr. Waston ! What are you doing on the moor at this late hour ? ” said Stapleton , coming forward with a cigar between his fingers . “ Oh . I am sorry , I see that you are not alone . ”

  “This is Mr. Holmes , ” I answered .

  “ Dear me ! What's this ? Is somebody hurt ? I hope it is not our friend Sir Henry !” He was bending over the body . The cigar had fallen from his fingers and his face had grown quite white .

  “ It's Selden , the escaped prisoner ,” I answered , looking Stapleton in the face . For a moment he was silent , then , hiding his disappointment and surprise he said :

  “ I heard a cry . I was anxious about Sir Henry and ran out to see what had happened . ”

  “Because I was expecting him at Merripit House and he did not come . Then I heard cries on the moor . By the way , did you hear anything else besides a cry ?”

  “ What do you mean ? ”

  “ Oh , you know the story about the terrible hound . They say it's sometimes heard on the moor at a late hour . I thought perhaps - ”

  “ We heard nothing of the kind ,” I said .

  “What's your opinion of this poor fellow's death ? ” he asked .

  “ I suppose he fell over a stone and broke his head ,” I answered .

  “ I think you are quite right

科目 英语

年级 高一

文件 high1 unit13.doc

标题 unit13

章节 第十三单元

关键词

内容

unit 13

  一.掌握本单元出现的单词和词组:

  set, fight, death, enemy, honest, slave, slavery, owner, law, freedom, lawyer, president, wise, spare, union, war, set…free, in all, no more than, break out, break away from, join up, consider…as, call for, beat to death, of one’s own, spare time

  二.本单元知识重点与难点分析

  1.Political leaders fought against slavery; they wanted freedom for all slaves.

   政治领袖们仅对奴隶制,他们想为所有的奴隶争得自由。

   fight against意思是“为反对……而斗争”,“和……斗争”。例如:

   In the second world war, Britain fought with France against Germany.

   在第二次世界大战中,英国和法国联合作战抗击德国。

   Man is fighting against pollution. 人类正与污染作斗争 。

   fight for …意思是“为……而斗争” 例如:

   the workers are fighting for their rights. 工人们在为争取他们的权利上而斗争。

   fight for freedom( peace, fights) 为自由(和平,权利)而斗争。

  2.In the end意思是“最后”,“终于”。相当于“at last”,“finally”。例如:

   He tried many different jobs, and in the end he became a postman.

   我做过多种工作,最后当了邮递员。

   I’m sure that everything will be all right in the end .

   我相信最后一切都会好起来的。

   (2)set free作“释放”,“给……自由”解。

   The slave owners didn’t agree to set their slaves free.

   农隶主不同意释放他们的奴隶。

   I’ll never forget the day when we were set free.我永远不会忘记我们获得自由的那一天。

  3.As a child he used to work hard and help his father on the small farm where they lived.他童年的时候就在他们的住的农场辛勤劳动,帮他父亲干活。

   as在句中是连词。作“当……时候”解。as a child可看作是as he was a child的简略形式。例如:

   As a child (As he was a child=When he was a child )Edison used to make experiments in his own Lab.当爱迪生还是个小孩子的时候,他常在自己的实验室里做实验。

   As a young man (As he was a young man=When he was a young man )he worked in a store and later in a post office . 年轻的时候;他在一家商店做过事,后来又在邮局工作过。

   I heard a cry for help as I was crossing the street.我在过马路的时候,听到一阵呼救声。

   as也可以用作介 词,作“作为”,“当作”解,例如:

   He worked as a tour guide for three years.他做过三年导游工作。

   As a teacher, I’d like to give you some advice. 作为老师,我想给你们提点建议。

   This stick can be used as a walking stick.这根本棍可以当作手杖来使用。

  4.She did all she could to help him. 她做了她所能做的一切来帮助他。

   句中She could是一个定语从句,修饰先行词all。关系代词that在定词从句中作宾语,因此可以省略。could后面的do ,因避免与主句的谓语动词did重复,也省略了。 此句的完整形式应是:She did all (that) she could(do ) to help him.这句还可改写成:she did what she could to help him.意思同上句一样,没有差别。但what she could是宾语从句,作did的宾语。

  5.He spent very little time at school , perhaps no more than a year in all.

   他在学校读书的时间很短,可能总共还不到一年。

   1)little是不定代词,作“很少”,“几乎没有”解,后跟不可数名词,表否定意思。而a little则表示“有一点”表肯定的意思,例如:

   There is little water is the little.瓶子里几乎没有什么水了。

   There is a little water in the bottle.瓶子里还有一点儿水。

   I have very little time for reading every day.我每天几乎没有什么时间看书。

   I have a little time for reading every day. 我每天还有一点儿时间用来看书。

   2)no more than相当于only,意思是“不过是”、“仅仅”。not more than是“不多于……”、“不超过”的意思,例如:

   It took him no more than(only) two hours to finish this work.他只花了两个小时就完成这项工作。

   I have no more than(only) two friends in shanghai.我在上海只有两个朋友。

   There are not more than fifty students in each class. 每个班的学生人数都不超过50人。

   3)in all作“总共”解,相当于altogether。例如:

   I spent two hundred yuan on these books in all.我买这些书总共花了200元。

科目 英语

年级 高一

章节 第十四单元

关键词 高一英语第十四单元

文件 high1 unit14.doc

标题

内容

基础知识导引

1盚ave you considered using the lab in your free class?

你有没有考虑过在自由活动的课上利用这个实验室呢?

consider νi.&νt.“考虑”,“认为”,“体谅”

句型:νt.a.~(单独使用)b.~+prep.phrase(接介词短语)νt.a.~+|ing/ωh\|ωord+to\|(可以接“名词”、“代词”、“动名词”、“疑问词+不定式”、“从句”作宾语,不接“不定式”作宾语)

b薄+复合宾语(接宾语+宾语补足语)

e.g.He always considered carefully before he acted.他总是三思而后行。

We must consider well over the matter.我们必须好好考虑这个问题。

Mary never coniders others.玛丽从不为别人着想/从不体谅别人。

Jane considered marrying peter.简考虑过和彼得结婚。

Jane you considered where to spend your holiday?你已经考虑过去什么地方度假了吗?I consider him(to be) consider nim(to be)an honest consider that he is an honest man.我认为他是老实人。

We are eonsidering whether to do the tomato experiment(=whether we should do the tomato experiment).我们正在考虑是否应该做这项西红柿实验。

The manager considered how to impove his business(=how he should improve his business).经理考虑过应该如何改进业务。

We always consider these people as our true comrades.

我们一向把这些人引以为真正的同志。

also:常见的接ν.\|ing(动名词)作宾语的动词或短语:enjoy,finish,mind,practise,suggest,understand,feel like,give up,can't help,put off,etc.

e.g.I've enjoyed talking to you about old times.我很高兴和你叙旧。

Do you mind my smoking here?我在这里抽烟你介意吗?

He doesm't feel like taking a walk.他不想散步。

2盬hat can you suggest?你有何建议?

I suggest you ask Mr.Wu.我建议你问问吴先生。

suggest νt.作“建议”解时,可接|ing/clause(名词、动名词或从句)作宾语;宾语从句中谓语动词用虚拟语气,即should+动词原形或只用动词原形。

~作“提出(某看法)”,“暗示”,“表明”解时,其后宾语从句中的谓语动词可用陈述语气的任何时态。

e.g.John suggested a swin,and we all agreed.约翰提议游泳,我们都同意了。

Peter suggested a plan to the boss.彼得向老板提出一项计划。

Mary suggested the coming weekend for the date of her meeting with Tom.

玛丽建议本周末和汤姆约会。

I suggest a visit to the suggest going to the suggest that we (should) go to the theatre.我建议去看戏。

I suggest that you(should)not refuse her invitation.

我建议你不要拒绝她的邀请。

Mr uncle suggested my getting a job in a uncle suggested that I(should)get a job in the bank.我叔叔建议我在银行找个工作。

Her expression suggested(that)sht was angry.

她的表情暗示(表明)她在生气。

3盰ou must weigh it carefully.你必须仔细称称它的重量。

weigh νt.“称……重量”,“估量,权衡”,“重压”

νI,“重量是”,“有分量/影响”~in“检查……体重/重量”

weight n.“重量,体重,分量”,“重要性(不可数)”,“砝码(可数)”

νt.“加重量于(使平稳)”,“使承受压力”

weighty adj.“沉重的”,“繁重的”,“重要的”

e.g.He weighed the stone in his hands他用手掂量一下这块石头的重量。

The fruit was so heavy that it weighed the branches down.

果实重得把树枝都压弯(垂下)了。

The problem weighed heavily on his mind.那个问题沉重地压在他心上。

Have all the suitcases been weighed in?这些衣箱都称过了吗?

That man is twice my weight.那个人的体重是我的体重的两倍。

Mr.White is a weighty merchant of Boston.

怀特先生是一个有影响力的波士顿商人。

4盩hen grow some tomatoes in one box……然后在盒子里种上一些西红柿……

Then see which plants grow higher,…然后看看那些秧苗长得高些……grow νt.“种植,栽培,使生长”νi.“生长,发育,增长”link.ν.“(逐渐)变得”

e.g.We have grown a lot of flowers this summer.

今天夏天我们栽培了很多花卉。

Does this plant grow in cold countries or in hot countries?

这种植物生长在寒带还是热带?

How quickly she is growing!她长得多么快啊!

The city of Hefei is growing more and more beautiful.

合肥市变得越来越美丽了。

5盜 used to get along very well with my cousin and we used to be very good friends.我过去和表弟相处得很好,我们曾经是好朋友。

1)“used+to\|inf.(+动词不定式)”表示过去的习惯和状态,因此只用过去时态,有“过去习惯于/经常做(而现在不再做)”的意思。

e.g.There used to be a bus stop on the corner,usedn'there/didn't there?

那个拐角上过去有一个公共汽车站,对吗?

I didn't use(used not)to like music,but now l'm getting interested.

我过去不喜欢音乐,但是现在慢慢感兴趣了。

Did you use (Used you)to play footall at school?

你过去在学校里常踢足球呈?

2)get along(With )“过活,生活”,“进行,进展”,“相处”,“走(掉)”

e.g.Fish can't get along without water.鱼没有水不能活。

How are you getting along with your English studies?

你的英语学习情况如何?

We will get along beautifully together.我们会在一起相处得非常好。

Get along with you!(=Go away!)走开!去你的!

发散思维导练

1敝腋娴谋泶锓绞

1)用advise和advice表示;

2)用情态动词must,ought to, should表示;

3)表示忠告的常用句型:

You'd better……

If I were you,I'd…

Why don't you…?

It is time…

It would be+形容词比较级+if从句/带to的不定式I'd rather…

e.g.I'd advise you to see a doctor.我劝你去看医生。

Let me give you a bit of advice if you don't mind.

你要是不介意的话,我来告诉你怎么办。

You must read this book.It is very educational.

你得读读这本书。它很有教育意义。

I think you'd better shut your books.我想你们最好把书合上。

If I were you,I'd help Xiao Wu with that problem.

我要是你的话,我就帮小吴解决一下那个问题。

Why don't you join the English Cormer?

你们为什么不参加英语角呢?

It is time you went to bed.该是你们上床睡觉的时候了。

It would be better if you explained it in English(or:to explain it in English).假如用英语来解释它,那就更好了。

I'd rather yuo didn't write it in pencil.

我希望你不要用铅笔写。

2苯ㄒ榈谋泶锓绞

1)用let引导的句子表示;

2)用suggest,suggestion,suppose,idea等词表示;

3)表示建议的常用句型:

How about…?

What about…?

Why not do sth…?

Why don't we…?

Shall I/we…?(用升调)

e.g.Let's clean the slassroom.让我们打扫教室。

Let's do it by ourselves,shall we?我们自己来做,好吗?

Let me help you,may I?让我帮助你,好吗?

May I suggest that you finish it before class is over?

我建议你们在下课前完成这个练习,行吗?

My suggestion is for you to prepare the last paragraph.

我建议你们准备最后一段。

Suppose we set out at seven.What do you say?

咱们七点动身,你看怎么样?

It might be a good idea to read one sentence each.

每人读一句可能是个好主意。

What about you two practising the dialogue?

你们俩来练习一下这个对话,好吗?

Why not have another try?干吗不再试一次呢?

Why don't we buy a computer?我们为什么不买一台计算机呢?

Shall I help you with your lessons?我来帮你学功课好吗?

一、 教学内容

1. 词汇(略)。

2. 句型1)How far is it ?2)Let’s get on the bus.

3. 语法:小结代词it的用法。

二、 教具

录音机;教学挂图(或模仿课文插图自制)。

三、 课堂教学设计

1. 复习 值日生报告。

教师可参照前几课有关复习步骤进行。

2.通过对第十五课的内容进行提问的方式,引出本课要学的对话:

T:Are Jim and Li Lei going to have any classes next week?

Ss:No,they aren’t .

T:What are they going to do next week?

Ss:They’re going to work on a farm next week.

T:What work are they going to do there?

Ss:They’re going to help the farmers with their work.

They’re going to pick apples.

T:Right .They’re going to work hard on the farm.(让学生猜hard一词的词义)。

The farm is near ,quite near. It’s not far.Only a few kilometers.

教师将上述生词写在黑板上,扼要说明,反复领读,直到学生初步掌握为止。

3.准备放课文第1部分录音。教师板书听前提问(Pre-listening questions):

1)Is Jim late?2)How far is the farm?

放课文录音一至两遍,学生回答黑板上的问题。再放录音,学生

打开书跟读,反复三遍。教师讲解对话中的难句(见难点讲解1、2).

4.将大幅挂图挂在黑板上(如条件不具备,可利用课本中插图),教师先问几个一般问题:

T:Where are the students?Are they at school?

Ss:No,they’re on the farm.

T:Are they working hard?

Ss:Yes,they are.

教师借助挂图,教授剩余生词,反复领读。确信学生初步掌握全部生词后,叫起一位程度较好的同学,进行以下问答练习:

T:Can you see Li Lei in the picture?

Ss:Yes,I can

T:What is he doing

Ss:He’s picking apples.

指导学生两人一组,模仿刚才的示范表演,就这幅图进行问答练习。

5.打开练习册,要求学生用笔头形式独立完成习题1.如果时间允许,数分钟后,可核对部分答案。

6.布置作业

1)练习朗读本课对话;2)抄写生词及短语;3)完成练习册习题。

四、难点讲解

1.I think it’s about seven.我想大约有7公里。

句中代词it指距离。在seven之后,省略了kilometres.

代词it的用法很多,请看以下例句;

1)A:Where is my book?I can’t find it .我的书在哪儿?我找不到了。你看不见吗?就在桌子下面。

B:Can’t you see?It’s under the desk.

例句中it 代替上文出现过的名词book。

2)A:What’s this in English、这个东西用英语怎样说?橡皮。

B:It’s an eraser.

例句中it代替上文出现过的另一代词this(也可代替that)

3)A:What time is it ?几点了?

B: It’s a quarter to seven.差一刻七点。

例句中it 指时间。

2.Let’s get on the bus.让我们上车吧。

这是一个祈使句。Let’s是let us的缩略形式,意为:“让我们”;要做的事情包括听者在内。在本课中,指李磊邀吉姆一同上车。如果所做的事情不包括听者在内,则一般不用缩略形式。例如:Please,Mr Hu .let us go home.胡老师,请让我们回家吧。

典型课例

教学目的和要求(Aims and demands)

1.听、说、读、写四种技能的训练,要求学生掌握下列句型:

whose is this / that…?

his /hers /mine /yours

Let me see,please

Thank you

2.听、说、读三种技能的训练,要求学生掌握下列句型。

You must look after your clothes

Put(it)on

教学重点(Main Points)

1.掌握并能运用下列句型

(1)whose is this shirt?

It’s…

(2)Jim,is this yours?

Yes,it’s mine

No,It is not mine. It’s hers

(3)You must look after your clothes

(4)It looks like yours

(5)Let me see,please

2.正确拼读下列单词

mine,yours,his,hers,its,ours,theirs,shirt,sweater

3.语法:

名词性物主代词

教学难点(Difficult Points)

1.能熟练掌握并正确运用本课所学句型和基本语言点。

2.能正确运用所学的语法及名词性物主代词。

教具:录音机

教学步骤(Teaching step)

Step 1:Revision(复习)

1.值日生报告(be on duty for the day)

教师可参考下列内容询问值日生。

教师可以说:“be ready for class”然后询问

Who’s on duty today?

Can you spell your name,please?/ Are we all here?

What colour is your coat?/What colour are your shoes?What’s this in English?

Where is your English book?/Can you count from one to thirty?/What’s twelve and thirteen?

Than you

2.练习所学过的句型

(1)What’s this?What are these?

(2)What colour is it?What colour are they?

复习上一节课所学过的词汇及表示颜色的词汇。教师可参照下列句型组织学习复习。

T:What’s this in English?

Ss:It’s a sweater

T:Can you spell it?

Ss:Yes,S-W-E-A-T-E-R sweater

T:What colour is it?

Ss:It’s black

教师可利用skirt,shirt,blouse,shoes dress,etc生词和“black,Green,red,brown white,orange,yellow”等表示颜色的生词,可按上述句型,组织学生进行对话练习的操练。

3.翻到插图1页,就其他图片上人们服装及颜色,组织学生两人一组进行对话练习,教师可参照下列句型。

(1)Look at the picture of Green’s family

Can you see the picture?

What colour is Jim’s shirt?etc

(2)What colour are Kate’s shoes?

They are brown etc

Step 2:Presentation(介绍)

在复习上一节课的句型和词汇的基础上,教师向学生引出新的语言项目。教师走到一个学生面前,拿起他的一支铅笔问全体同学:

T:What’s this in English?

Ss:It’s a pen

T:Is it a pen?

Ss:Yes,it is

T:What colour is it ?

Ss:It’s red

T:Whose is this pen?

(反复说二遍后,将“whose”一词写在黑板上),然后向学生解释它的意思。

Ss:It’s Wang Pin’s pen

T:Wang Pin’s means Wang Pin’s pen

You may say it is hers

hers=her pen

然后将“hers”写在黑板上,向学生解释“hers”的意思,并简要说明名词性物主代词的用法和形容词性物主代词的用法不同之处。

将名词性物主代词和形容词性物主代词形式写在黑板上。

my,you,his,its,our,your,their,

mine,yours,his,hers,its,ours,yours,theirs

Step 3:Drill(操练)

教师拿自己的英语课本问一个学生。

T:Is this book yours?

Ss:No,it isn’t.

T:Whose is this book?

Ss:It’s yours

T:Oh,it’s mine

在学生基本掌握名词性物主代词之后,教师可在班里来回走动,拿起学生的尺子、铅笔、铅笔、橡皮、书、包等物品,快速提出类似问题“Whose is this?/Is it yours?/Is it hers?/Is it his?/Is it Li Pin’s?/Is it mine?etc

直到学生完全弄明白,并能正确回答老师提出的问题。

Step 4:Practice(练习)

教师可根据本单元的教学内容和上一节课所学的内容,设计对话和实际情景,通过操练和练习来巩固所学的句型。

1.教师可找几个服饰颜色不同的学生到前面来,通过以下对话,巩固所学的句型。

T:What colour is Li Pin’s coat?(sweater,shirt,dress etc)

SA:It’s green(black,yellow,blue,brown red,white etc)

T:What colour are Li Pin’s trousers ?

SA:They are blue.

2.教师当众拿出几个学生的学习用品,参考下列内容组织对话。

A:Whose is this earaser?

Li Pin,is this yours?

B:No,it’s not mine

I think it’s Wei Fang’s

A:(转向Wei Fang问)

Wei Fang,is this your earser?

C:Yes,it’s mine

A:Here you are. You must look after your eraser

(教师解释You must look after your eraser的意思。)

C:Thank you

上述对话进行完了之后,教师可将,“Whose is this sweater?”这外句型写在黑板上,并加以解释,然后教师设计新的对话内容,组织学生进行练习。

T:Whose is this sweater?

It looks like yours,Li Pin

S l:Let me see,please

No,it’s not mine

I think it’s Wei Fang’s

T:Wei Fang,is this your sweater?

S2:Yes,it’s mine

T:Put it on,please

You must look after your clothes

S2:Thank you teacher

示范后,解释(1)Let me see(2)You must look after your clothes等句型

教师可按上述句型,替换成其他物品,如书包学习用具等。

学生通过练习,能掌握并运用所学的句型。

3.听录音,然后重复录音,组织学生跟读,然后按照课文的第二部分,每四个学生一组,四个学生扮演四个不同的角色进行对话表演。

Step5:Consolidation(巩固)

1.指导学生做练习册1、2题。

在做习题1之前,组织学生听听力磁带,听力课文,然后根据课文内容回答问题。

2.检查学生单词拼读情况。

3.补充练习。(可使用投影仪)

选择正确的答案:

(1)This is my book.. It’s ______ (my /mine/your)

(2)That is not your ruler. It’s ______(her/hers /yours)

(3)Look at that cat. It’s ______(their /theirs/her)

(4)Whose shoes are these?They are _____(our /your/his)

Sum up(总结)

1.Grammar:(语法)

Pronouns(代词)

2.Sentence patterns:(句型)

(1)Whose is this sweater?

(2)Is this yours?

Yes. It is mine

(3)You must look after your clothes

(4)Let me see

(5)Put it on

家庭作业

1.背诵对话

2.完成练习册的习题。

板书设计

Lesson 54

形容词性物主代词: 名词性物主代词

my/It is my shirt mine /It is mine

your/It is your shirt yours/It is yours

his /It is his shirt his/It is his

her /It is her blouse hers /It is hers

our/They are our shoes ours /They are ours

their /They are their pens theirs /They are theirs

一、 教学内容

1. 词汇(略)。

2. 句型:Whose is this shirt?

3. 语法:初步学习名词性物主代词用法。

二、 教具

录音机;一件男式衬衫,一件毛衣;上一节课所使用过的图片。

三、 课堂教学设计

1. 复习。由值日生在前面与全班做一个“Who is my friend”的

游戏(参照上一课教案)。

复习表示颜色及上一课所学过的词汇。翻到彩色插图第i页,就其他图片上人们的服装及颜色进行两人一组的问答练习。

2.参照第25课教案步骤2,教mine,yours,his hers等名词性物主代词。

T:(走到一位同学前,拿起他的铅笔盒)What’s this in English?

S:It’s a pencil-box

T:What colour is it?

S:It’s blue.

T:Is it your pencil-box?

S:Yes ,it is .

T:So this is your pencil-box,It’s YOURS.

让全班猜一下yours的意思,并板书这个单词。

又拿起旁边一位女同学的钢笔,继续问这个同学:Is this your pen?

S:No ,it isn’t.

T:WHOSE is this pen?

S: (指向旁边的女同学)It’s her per.

T:so this is her pen,it’s HERS.

教师又拿出自己的钢笔,问另一位同学:Is this your pen?

S:No ,it isn’t .It’s your pen.

T:Oh,it’s my pen.It’s MINE.

完成上述步骤后,领读单词,学生反复跟读几遍。

3.放课文录音(到第2张插图内容为止)。教师先板书一个问题:

Whose is this shirt?

放录音一遍。学生回答黑板上的问题。然后再放这部分录音,学生跟读一至两遍。教师解释Let me see.及You must look after your clothes.这两句。

放课文后两幅插图的录音。先板书问题:Whose is this sweater?其他步骤同上。

4.教师拿出准备好的衬衫和毛衣,假设这两件衣服分别是××、××同学的,再叫另外两位同学到前面,举着衣物提问,引出类似本课课文的对话。(也可以替换成其他物品,如书包、文具等。但要注意:不能再用You must look after your clothes.这一句中的clothes一词;可直接换成该实物名称。)

5.将课文录音完整放一次,学生跟读。

6.指导学生做练习册习题。(本课习题1可留到下一节去做)

7.布置作业

1)抄写词汇和本课主要句型;2).练习朗读本课对话;3)完成练习册习题。

四、难点讲解

1. Is this yours? 这是你的吗?

Yours是一个名词性的物主代词。关于物主代词,我们已经在第

七、九两个单元中见过一些。物主代词有两种:一种是形容词性物主代词,它们起的作用类似一个形容词的作用。如:my (我的),your(你的),his(他的)等。还有一种名词性物主代词,表示物体的所属,即:“……的”,但起的作用类似一个名词。如:mine(我的),yours(你的),ours(我们的)等。

下面请看例句:

1. This is my book.这是我的书。

The book is mine.这书是我的。

2. Are these sweaters yours? 这些是你的毛衣吗?

Are these sweaters yours? 这些毛衣是你的吗?

3. It’s not their football.那不是他们的足球。

The football is not theirs.那足球不是他们的。

从以上示例我们可以看出:my ,your,their等形容词性物主代词,分别修饰它们后面的名词,起定语作用;而mine,yours,theirs等名词性物主代词,后面不能再加其他名词,因为他们本身起名词作用。

2. Put it on,please,Lily.莉莉,穿上它。

Put on 是“穿上、戴上”的意思,后面可以接宾语。例如:

Please put on yours coat.请穿上你的外衣。

这句话也可以说成:Please put your coat on.

如果使用代词it或them 来表示所要穿的衣服,只能把代词放在put与on之间,而不能放在短语的后面。例如:

Put them on,please.请把它们穿上。

3. Whose is this sweater?这是谁的运动衣?

Whose是疑问词,意为:谁的。这句话也可以说成:whose sweater is this?意思不变。如果所询问的物体是复数形式,句中的be动词要做相应的变化。例如:Whose schoolbags are these?这些是谁的书包?或者说成:Whose are these schoolbags?

A Teaching Plan

for Unit 9 Lesson 35 (SEFC Book II)

--Taught by Chen Hua from Daye No.1 Middle School, Huangshi City

 

Step 1: Greetings

 

Step 2: Revision

Complete the following sentences with the proper words:

1. The area of the desert in the world is growing.

2. Dunhuang in China was once a great city, but now it is surrounded by desert.

3. Good soil on the earth is gradually lost.

4. Air pollution comes from factories, power stations and cars.

5. Water pollution is caused by waste from factories and cities.

 

Step 3: Presentation

Q: What can you see in the picture?

What is the main cause of the animals dying out?

 

Step 4: Reading comprehension

Question in mind: Why are there so few tigers in China?

 

Step 5: Listen to the text

Questions and answers (using head-projector)

1. When did the life begin on the earth? (3 billion)

2. How many kinds of living things are living on the earth? (5-10 million)

3. How many kinds of animals died out from 1550 to 1950? (400 kinds)

4. Who is the most dangerous enemy of animals? (humans)

5. In how many ways have humans played a bad part in animals' life?

(3 aspects)

6. Altogether how many tigers are there in China? (400)

7. Did people do anything to increase the number of tigers in China?

What did we do?

8. Has any progress been made?

 

Step 6: Understanding of the text

Main idea for each part

Part 1: animals dying out

Part 2: Reasons for animals dying out

Part 3: Examples of animals dying out

Part 4: Progress made in protecting animals

Step 7: Language study Past participles

e.g. The handkerchief is torn.(This is a torn handkerchief.)

The stick is broken.( This is a broken stick.)

Talk about a picture:

 

Examples:

The door is closed.

The ball is broken.

The boy's eye is injured.

 

Step 8: Reading comprehension

A Day in the Forest

Task: Mark all the past participles from the reading passage

 

Step 9: Competition between the boys and the girls

Ss come to the blackboard to write down all the past participle they can find from the passage and then are asked to pick out those that can be used as adjectives

 

Step 10: Listen and retell

 

Step 11: Word study on Page 53

 

Step 12: Homework

  

Comments:

1. Good beginning, but hurried ending

2. Well-designed questions for comprehension

3. Well-chosen materials for revision

4. Main idea is simple but to the point

5. Combination of grammar and reading comprehension

(Find out all the past participle from the reading passage)

6. Ss' active participation

(competition bet. The boys and girls)

7. Ethic Education in la. teaching

(e.g.We must protect animals.)

8. Modern teaching technology is used

Head-projector

recorder

I Lead-in

What month is this month?

There’s a very important international festival in this month? What’s it?

II Warming-up

III Listening

IV Speaking

V Language points

1 admire

1) 钦佩,赞赏,羡慕

They admired our garden.

I admire him for his success in business.

2) 表示赞美,夸奖

Aren’t you going to admire my new hat?

3) admirer

4) admiring

give admiring glances 投以/赢得赞赏的目光

be welcomed by admiring fans 受到崇拜者的欢迎

2 inspire

1) 激发,启示

His noble example inspired the rest of us to greater efforts.

The West Lake scenery inspired him to write his great poetry.

2) 极力,鼓舞(inspire sb. with inspire sth in sb. inspire sb. to do sth. )

Our first sight of the dirty little hotel did not inspire us with much confidence.很不痛快

Inspire hope, loyalty, enthusiasm in sb. 燃起某人的希望,唤起某人的忠诚,激起某人的热情

The teacher always inspires us to speak English.

3) inspiring, inspired

3 have high marks for maths

4 become of 某人情况如何

What will become of my child if he dies?

I wonder what became of the people who lived next door?

What became of the dreams of our youth? 我们年轻时的理想今何在?

5 mean

adj.

1) 吝啬的,自私的

She is very mean with money.

She’s too mean to make a donation.

2) mean ( to sb. ) 卑鄙的,不善良的

That was a mean trick. 卑鄙的伎俩

It was mean of you to eat all the food. ….太坏了

Don’t be too mean to your little brother. 刻薄

v.

1) 意思是,意味

A dictionary tells you what words mean.

Spending too much now will mean a shortage of money next year.

This new order will mean working overtime.

The sudden thaw means spring is here.

2) 怀有某目的,打算,意欲

What does she mean by putting off her performance?

We always mean what we say.

She means this gift for you.

I’m sorry to have hurt you, but I didn’t mean to do so.

I wasn’t serious. I meant it as a joke.

I didn’t mean you to read the letter.

I mean you no harm.

His father meant him to be an engineer.

3) mean to do, mean doing

6 generous adj. 慷慨的,大方的

Mr. Li is a generous man.

He is generous with his money.

Mother Teresa was generous in giving help to the poor.

It was generous of you to share your food with me.

as

1用作介词

1) 作为, 当作, 担任

He worked as a teacher.

He acted as a policeman in this film.

As a work of art it is very poor.

作为艺术品这是十分拙劣的。

Treat as, regard as, consider as, think of …as

As a child, she was sent to six different schools.

2) 好象

He is dressed as a policeman.

2 副词,达到与…相同的程度,与…等同

This dress is twice as expensive as that one.

She’s as good an actor as she is a singer.

3 连词

1) 在期间,当时候

As he grew older he lost interest in everything except gardening.

I watched her as the old lady got off the bus.

2) 因为,由于

As you weren’t there I left a message.

3) 尽管,即使,虽然

Young as I am, I already know what I will be.

Much as I like you, I couldn’t share it with you.

Try as he would, he couldn’t open the door.

4) 以方式,按照

Do as I say and sit down. Leave the table as it is.

Leave the table as it is.

5) 为…之事实

As you know, the earth is round.

The Beatles, as many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.

6) 也一样(后接be或助+主语)

She’s unusually tall, as are both her parents.

They have all finished their work, as has she.

He believes, as does his family, that knowledge is power.

2 diet, food

diet 习惯上吃的食物;规定的食物。特指维持健康的定质或定量的食物(如给病人的或保健的) go/be on a diet

food 一般用语,任何能吃且有营养的东西。强调种类时,可用复数

3 keep up with, catch up with

keep up with “跟上,不落后于” ,表示并肩前进,并驾齐驱

John finds it difficult to keep up with the rest of the class in mathematics.

Can you walk a little slower? I can’t keep up with you.

Catch up with 在已经落后的情况下“追上,赶上”

He was behind in his studies because of illness, but he is catching up with the others now.

4 pace

1) c.n. 一步

The hospital is only a few paces away.

She took two paces forward.

2) c.n. 速度

She slowed down her pace so that I could keep up with her.

She moved as a good(fast, slow, walking) pace.

They walked at a pace of three miles an hour.

He left the advertising company because he couldn’t stand the pace there.

Keep pace with 与并驾齐驱,齐头并进

It’s important for a firm to keep pace with changes in the market.

Keep pace with times

5 help

1) vt help(to) do sth.

All this has helped (to) improve our service work.

Help sb. (to) do sth.

The advice helped us make progress in the study of English.

Can’t help doing sth.

2) vi 有帮助,有用

This medical handbook helps a lot.

6 function

1) n. 功能,作用 the function of the heart perform an important function

2)vi (器官)活动,(机器)运行,起作用 The machine does not function properly.

The telephone was not functioning.

7 过分做状语

因为受到老师的表扬,他学习更努力了。

如果给以更多的关心和照料,这个病人将会很快恢复健康。

那老太太回到家,后面跟着一大群孩子。

就在这时,一位白发苍苍的先生由护士搀扶着走了进来。

被读过以后,总统的报告接受大家的讨论。

8 become/be part of

I’m glad you have become part of our class, David. Welcome!

This is a dishonest plan. I don’t want to be part of it.

用part of...作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后面的名词,名词是单数,谓语动词用单数;否则用复数。

Part of the city was destroyed in the earthquake.

这座城市有一部分在地震中被毁。

Parts of the books have been given out to students.

有部分书籍已发到学生手中。

We spent (a) part of our holiday in France.

Parts of the book are interesting.

Only (a) part of his story is true.

9 amount

1)n.总数,总额Can you really afford this amount?

2)n.数量 a large amount of/large amounts of work, money, furniture

Food was provided in large/small amounts.

You will be in danger if you take the medicine in the wrong amounts.

3) vi amount to 总计,共达 The cost amounted to 250 dollars.

等于,实际上是 Your words amounts to a refusal.

10 go for 适用于,应用于

I think this report is badly written, and that goes for all the other work done in this office.(其他工作也一样)

Your brother is a clever boy. And the same goes for you.

What I have said about Smith goes for you, too.

Go back, go by, go in for, go on, go out, go over, go through, go without, on the go

11 make sure “确定,查明”或“确定,“务必...”,后跟of短语或that从句。

Go to the train station and make sure that every one of us will get a ticket.

你到火车站去一下,确保给我们每人都买到票。

11 now and then(有时,偶尔), from time to time (不时地,经常)

12 brain

1)c.头脑a disease of the brain

The brain is the center of the nervous system.

2)u, c pl头脑,智力

He has very little brain.

She has an excellent brain.

You need brains to become a university professor.

3)c. 聪明人,知识分子

He is one of the leading brains in the country.

Warming-up

1 compare

1)比较;对照

compare one thing with another

将一物与另一物比较

2)比喻;显出相同之处;比作

Man's life is often compared to a candle.

人生常被喻为蜡烛。

The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems.

诗人在他诗歌中把他的情人比作玫瑰花。

Poets have compared sleep to death.

3)(常与with连用) 与…比较;比得上

Walking can't compare with flying.

走路比不上飞行。

Living in a town can't compare with living in the country in many respects.

在许多方面城市生活比不上在乡村生活。

This can’t compare with that one.

4)compared to=compared with

Compared with(to) many people, she was very lucky.

It was a small place then compared to(with) what it is now.

2 know, know of

know 认识,知道,了解

know of 听说过,知道有

I know of the man, but I don’t know him.

To know everything is to know nothing.样样通,样样松

I know of a shop where you can get things like that.

3 ask for sth., ask for sb., ask sb. for sth.

ask for trouble, ask for leave, ask for two days’ leave, ask for advice, ask for help

4 celebrate, congratulate

celebrate celebrate the new year/Christmas/sb’s birthday, a victory, success

congratulate sb. on (doing) sth. cogratulations to sb. on (doing) sth

Listening

dress

c.n. 连衣裙 She makes all her own dresses.

u.n. 衣服(男女),(尤指)外衣

casual/ formal dress evening dress care much about dress讲究衣着 a summer dress夏装

an evening dress夜礼服 a full dress大礼服

He was in special dress for the ceremony.

v 穿衣 He is too young to dress himself.

Time is up, be quick to dress.

He was dressed as a woman.

The woman dressed in white is a nurse.

Nowadays children are dressed well/badly/fashionably.

The beggar is dressed badly/poorly/well.

穿晚礼服 Do I need to dress for the party?

dress up 穿上盛装 They dressed up and went to the party.

化装打扮 Children love to dress(themselves) up as animals.

dress, put on, wear, have on, on

Speaking

allow

allow sth. allow doing sth. allow sb. to do sth.

allow 有听任、默许之意,有“并不禁止”的含义,词意较弱

permit 比更正式些,比积极,含有“主动许可”和“正式批准”之意,词意较强

Nothing is permitted, everything is allowed.

Reading

1 major

1)adj.较大的;较多的;主要的

a major city 主要城市 a major road 干路a major operation 大手术

We have met major problems.

2)n.(大专院校学生的)主修科目,专业

Her major is French.

3)v.主修

She majored in maths and physics in university.

2 follow v

1)(常与after连用)跟随

The children followed their mother into the room.

孩子们跟着母亲进了房间。

We shall follow closely the latest advance of the subject in the world.

我们将密切注意世界上这一课题的最新进展。

We went upstairs, following the old man.

We went upstairs, followed by the old man.

2)沿…而行,顺…前进

We followed the road to the top of the hill.

我们沿着这条路走到了小山顶。

3)接着;随后为

Spring follows winter.

冬去春来。

4)明白;懂

I didn't follow his line of reasoning.

我不明白他的推理方法。

5)听从;服从

The soldiers must follow the officer's orders.

士兵们必须执行军官的命令。

Please follow the instructions on the packet when you take the drug.

吃药时请按照包装上的说明去服用。

Will you follow my advice?

你会听我的忠告吗?

6)继之而来,必然是;必然发生

Disease often follows war.

战争后必然发生疾病。

If a=b and b=c it follows that a=c.

She’s not in the office but it doesn’t necessarily follow that she’s ill.

7) as follows如下

The results are as follows...

结果如下…

8)follow sb’s exmple

3 in common

have…(something, nothing, a lot, a little, little)in common (with…) 和…有…共同之处

in common with…和…一样

They had a lot in common(with each other) and got on well.

In common with many other boys, he is into computer games.

I have nothing in common with you.

4 honour n.

1) u.n.光荣,荣幸 It’s a great honour to be invited.

2) u.n.荣幸,名誉 We must fight for the honour of one’s country.

3) u.n.崇敬,公众表示的敬意 They stood in silence as a mark of honour to her.

4) an honour to 给…增光的人或物 She is an honour to her family.

5)do sb. honour 向某人表示敬意或致敬

6)do sb. an honour, do sb. the honour of doing sth.给某人以特权,使某人有特殊的荣幸

You do us a great honour by attending. 你肯光临使我们感到无比荣幸

Will you do me the honour of dining with me?可否赏光与我一起吃饭?

7)in honour of, in one’s honour出于对…的敬意

We held a ceremony in honour of the those killed in battle.

v 向致敬,表扬,给…以荣誉

I feel highly honoured by your trust.

Will you honour me with a visit? 如蒙造访则荣幸之至

5 for oneself(为自己;独自地,亲自地), by oneself(单独地,独自地), of oneself自然而然地,自动地

Finally the shop assistant didn’t give me the right change, but kept back five pounds for himself.

Do you have anything to say for yourself?

One can’t do such a thing for oneself.这样的事情,独自一人是做不起来的

They cook meals all by themselves.

The door opened of itself.

The enemy will not die out of itself.自行消灭

We must build a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.

6 support vt

1) 承受的重量,支撑,扶持

Walls support the roof.

Is this bridge strong enough to support heavy lorries?

He was weak with hunger, so I had to support him.

2) support sb/sth (in sth.) 帮助某人(某物),支持,支援

We support the Conservative Party.

Will you support me in my campaign for election?

3) 资助,供养,赡养I

I was supported by my parents when I was studying.

7 as well as “除以外还,和一样也”,连接两个对等的成分,主谓一致依“就前一致原则”

English, as well as Chinese and maths, is of great importance.

The girl is lively as well as healthy.

He wants a pen as well as a pencil.

He gave me advice and money as well.

E-mail, as well as telephones, ________ an important part in daily communication.

A is playing B have played C are playing D play

John plays football _______, if not better than, David.

A as well B as well as C so well D so well as

8 light

n 1) u.n. 光,光线,光亮

This lamp gives out poor light.

This light is too poor to read by.

2) c.n.光源,电灯

A light was still burning in his study.

Far below the plane we could see the lights of London.

adj. 1)明亮的 a light room

2)浅色的,淡色的 Light colours suit you best. light green eyes

3)轻的,不重的 a light box

v.(lit, lighted) 1)(使某物)开始燃烧

This wood is so damp it won’t light. Light a cigarette

Let’s light a fire in the open air.

2)开(电灯等) Light the torch, I can’t see the path.

3)light up照亮 The lightning lit up the whole sky.

点上 He lit up a pipe.点上烟斗

(脸)放光彩,容光焕发 Her eyes lit up with joy.因喜悦而目光炯炯

Language study

1 give away 赠送He gave away most of his money to charity.

分发 The headmaster will give away the prizes to the sportsmen.

失去,错过(机会)They gave away their last chance of winning the match.

2 seem

seem + adj. What seems easy to some people seems difficult to others.

seem to be He seems to be an honest man.

seem like + n. It seemed like a disaster at the time.

seem + 不定式 She seems to be right.

They seem to have known the news.

She seems to be crying.

It seems that… It seems that they are quarrelling with each other.

There seems to be… There seems to be no need to worry about the examination.

It seems as if/as though… It seems as if they had finished the homework.

It seems as if he knew the star very well.

It seems as if it would rain.

Intergrating skills

1 rather adv.在一定程度上,颇

1)在adj.,adv.前 It’s rather cold this year.

You’ve done rather badly in the exam.

2)在比较级前 This hotel is rather more expensive than that one.

3)在too之前 This exercise is rather too difficult.

4) 和冠词连用 It seems a rather good idea. This is rather a surprising result.

The rather clever boy is his son.

It’s rather a shame/pity that John didn’t attend the meeting.

比较:a fairly good book quite a tall sportsman a quite tall sportsman

5) 用于动词之前 I rather think that we are going in the wrong way.

6) 与名词连用 It’s rather a pity. She’s rather a dear.

7) or rather He worked very late last night, or rather, early this morning.

8) would rather…than…

9) I’d rather that you came tomorrow.

2 take in 欺骗You won’t take me in that easily.

She took me in completely with her story.

吸入,摄取 Don't take in too much fat.

承揽(活)In order to send her son to school, she took in washing.

I Warming-up

1 Work in pairs, getting them to describe what they see in the pictures.

Help:

1) Look at the picture. Is it about an adventure?

2) Who is the old man? Is he a real old man?

3) What is the map about?

4) Are the two young men interested in what the old man is saying? Where do they go and what do they want to do?

5) Do they find the treasure?

6) What happens to them?

7) What’s the result?

2 Ask the students to answer the questions, and then make up a good story.

The pictures tell us an adventure about two young men: One is a boy and the other is a girl. One day the two went for a visit at an island. It was a nice fairy land and the two young men were happy. Just then an old man appeared before them. The old man told them there were a great many treasures in a cave behind the mountain. The two young men were interested in what the old man told them. They decided to go to see if it was true.

To their joy, they found so many treasures that they could hardly believe their own eyes. Just then, they heard a big wind and came a monster before them. How frightened they were! They ran away in a hurry. Of course the two young men got nothing.

II Listening

1 Brief introduction about the short play made up of three parts.

2 Listening

3 Check the answers

III Speaking

1 Study the directions

2 Divide the students into three groups, each for one short play

3 Students making preparations

4 Act out

Speaking

1. It got dark before they could go home,so the friends have to spend the night in the old Black Tower on the mountain.

他们还没有回家,天就黑了,于是朋友们只好在山上的黑塔里过夜。

before conj.在…时间之前;趁;还没有来得及就……, 还没有,

……才, 在……的时候还没有,

It became dark before they knew it.

不知不觉天黑了。

He left before I could say “thanks”.

我没来得及说“谢谢”, 他就走了。

We had scarcely reached the school before it began to rain.

我们刚到学校天就下雨了。

Before they drive any of the buses, they will have to pass a special test.

在驾驶公共汽车前,他们必须通过专门测验。

Before I could explain the reason to him, he rushed out of the classroom.

我还没来得及跟他解释原因,他就冲出了教室。

Take it before you change your mind.买了吧,不要三心二意了。

It will be five years before we meet again.要等5 年我们才能再见面。

He arrived there before it began to rain.他到那里的时候天还没下雨。

before还有“与其…宁可”的意思,如:

He'd die of hunger before he would steal

他宁愿饿死也不愿偷窃。

2. It is a sunny morning and four students are on their way to school.

那是一个阳光明媚的早晨,四个学生走在上学的路上。

on one’s way to some place在去往……的路上

on the way to 快要成为…, 在通向……的路上

I’ll buy some on my way home.

He is on the way to becoming an engineer.

by the way 顺便说 by way of 经由

in the way 挡道 in this way 以这种方式

out of the way 奇特的, 不寻常的

By the way, I have something to tell you.

He came here by way of Shanghai.

Don’t stand in the way.

He has done nothing out of the way yet. 他尚未做出不寻常的事。

Reading

4.I’m sorry, but I don’t think I know you.

对不起,我觉得我不认识你。不能译成:对不起,我不认为我认识你。从译文可以看出,该句否定词 not 否定的不是 think 而是 know,这就是我们常说的否定转移。动词think, suppose, believe, imagine, guess等后接否定转移的句子。如:

I don’t think you are correct. 我认为你不对。

He didn’t believe your friend would steal his money.

他相信你的朋友不会偷他的钱。

I don't think that he'll accept your invitation .

我认为他不会接受你的邀请。

I don't believe he told a lie .

我相信他没有说谎。

I didn’t think he was happy, was he? 我认为她并不幸福,是不是?

I don’t suppose that he cares, does he? 我认为他并不关心,是不是?

5.In fact you do, but you may not remember me.

其实你认识我,但你可能不会记得我了。

do 助动词,用于加强语气;代动词,代替上文的谓语;

行为动词,做;产生,制作;使整洁;处理,照料;结束,完成;

可用,可以,适合, 行;

That’s exactly what he did say.那就是他说的话。

Do tell me what happened.务请告诉我发生了什么。

--Who broke the window? --I did.--谁打坏了窗子?--是我。

What’s done cannot be undone. 覆水难收。

I have done six copies. 我已复制了六份。

Go and do (up) your hair.去梳一梳你的头发。

I’ll do you next, sir. 我下一个照料你,先生。

It’s done.做完了。

These shoes won’t do for mountain-climbing.这鞋子爬山不适用。

Can you make $5 do(make this sum cover your expenses)?

你能设法使五美元足够你的费用吗?

A cup of tea will do.一杯茶足够了。

It doesn’t do to be rude to your parents.对父母无礼是不行的。

may not 有时表示“可能不”。如:

He may not believe your words.

他可能不会相信你的话。

有时也表示“不可以”,如:

You may not bring your textbooks into the examination room.

你们不可以将课本带入考场。

6.Sorry, I didn’t recognize you.

对不起,我没有认出你来。

注意recognize和know的区别

1) recognize 指认出曾经见过或原来认识的人或物;

=be ready/prepared to admit 意识到,自认

She had changed so much that I could hardly recognize her .

她变化太大我差点没有认出她来。

They recognized this man without difficulty .

他们毫无困难地认出这个人。

After the accident, he recognized that he was not fit for the job.

2) know 表示一直或早就认识并熟悉某人或某物,和 from 连用时,其含义为“辨认,区别”。

get to know 表示开始认识,是不延续的动作。

I know the place very well.这地方我很熟悉。

I got to know him in the autumn of 1997.

我是在1997年秋天认识他的。

They're twins and it's almost impossible to know one from the other .

他们是双胞胎,几乎不可能分辨他们。

It is not always easy to know right from wrong .

明辨是非不是件容易的事。

另外,recognize 为短暂性动词,不能与延续的时间状语连用;如需表示长时期相识时,可用动词 know 取代 recognize .

7.That’s because of hard work-ten years of hard work.

那是因为艰苦的劳作---十年的辛苦啊。

because of 意思为“由于,因为”,后接名词,动名词,because是连词后接从句。如:

He didn’t go to school because of his illness.(=He didn’t go to school because he was ill.)

由于生病他不能上学。

I like it because of its color and pattern.

我喜欢它是因为它的颜色和图案。

8.I’m sorry, Mathilde. Did you have a hard time?

我很难过,玛蒂尔德,你过得很艰难吗?

time有时可用做可数名词,意思为“某段日子,时代,时期”。如:

The 1960s were hard times for many Chinese people.

二十世纪六十年代对许多中国人来说是一段很艰辛的日子。

The story took place in Peter the Great’s times.

故事发生在彼德大帝时代。

University was a good time for me.

Times are hard for the unemployed.

in ancient/old recent times, in time(s) of danger, trouble, hardship

9.That has been my life for the past ten years.

这便是我过去十年的生活。

含有 past或last 的时间状语,经常与现在完成时连用。如:

Our hometown has experienced great changes in the past 20 years.

在过去二十年中,我们的家乡发生了很多变化。

We have been feeling disappointed during the past few days because of the failure of our team.

因为我们的队被击败了,过去几天里我们一直觉得很失望。

Many buildings have been built in our city in the past year.

过去的一年我们市建了很多大楼。

注意:如果用in the past作状语,谓语动词用过去式。如:

 The working people lived a miserable life in the past.

过去,劳动人民过着 悲惨的生活。

10.Well, I would rather not.

我最好不(说出来)。

would rather 宁愿 常用于以下结构:

1)would rather sth

2)would rather do sth;

3)would rather not do sth;

4)would do sth rather than do sth=would rather do sth.than do sth

=prefer to do sth rather than do sth

5)would rather +从句 如:

I’d rather (have) the blue one.

我喜欢蓝色的那个。

He’d rather not go to school today.

他今天不愿去上学。

I’d rather walk than take a bus.

我宁愿走也不愿乘公共汽车。

=I’d walk rather than take a bus.

I’d rather you came tomorrow.

我宁愿你明天来。

I’d rather you had met me yesterday.

我宁愿你昨天来见我。

注意:would rather +从句时,从句的谓语动词要用虚拟语气。过去时表示将来的动作或状态。过去完成时表示过去的动作或状态。

11.We’d been invited to a ball at the palace so I needed to borrow some jewelry.

我们被邀请去参加一个宫廷舞会,所以我需要借一些首饰。

jewel(le)ry是不可数名词,(总称)珠宝,可以借助piece来表达可数的概念。如:

Some of my jewelry is missing .

 我的一些珠宝丢失了。

a piece of jewellery 一件珠宝

She has a lot of jewelry . 

 她有许多珠宝。

jewel是可数名词,如:

She appeared at the reception wearing her finest jewels.

她戴着她最好的首饰出现在招待会上。

12.It can’t be true, Pierre!

不可能吧,皮埃尔!

can的否定式和疑问式经常用做猜测,可以表示对现在情况的猜测。肯定句用must。

Who can that be in the car?

汽车里的那个人是谁?

It can’t be Mr Zhang. He has gone to Shanghai.

那不可能是张先生,他去上海了。

如要表示对过去情况的猜测,用can’t(couldn’t)have done表示,如:

He can’t have murdered his wife. He was not at home that night.

他不可能杀了他的妻子。那天晚上他不在家。

It can’t have rained last week, or the crops would not have died.

上星期肯定没有下过雨,否则的话,庄稼不会死。

Could the computer have gone wrong?

电脑会不会搞错?

true 意为“正确的,实际上发生的,与事实相符的,真正的,天然的(real)”。

real 表示“真的存在而非虚构或想象的”。

This is a true story. 这是一个真实的故事。

Today we’re going to have real English food.今天我们将领略地道的英国菜。

That is a true/real pearl.那是一个颗天然珍珠。

13. And a new dress costs over four hundred francs.

新礼服化了四百多法郎。

cost 意为“花费”,指花费金额、费用、时间、劳力等,不可用于被动语态,其主语是表示物或事的词。又如:

Such a difficult job costs a lot of time and effort.

这么难的工作既化时间又化精力。

This dictionary cost me nearly 100 yuan .

这本字典化了我近一百元。

当 cost 表示“价值多少钱”时,可与 be worth 换用。例如:

This pen costs (=is worth ) 20 yuan .

另外,下面几个表达“某人花多少钱做某事”的句型很重要,也是常考点,需注意。

( 1 ) 主语 ( 物 ) + costs sb . + 钱 + to do sth .

( 2 ) 主语 ( 人 ) + pay + 钱 + for sth .

( 3 ) 主语 ( 人 ) + spend + 钱 + on sth .

( 4 ) It takes sb . + 钱 + to do sth .=It takes + 钱 + for sb . to do sth .

( 5 ) 主语 ( 人 ) + buy sth . for + 钱。

It will cost you $500 to repair the car .

I paid 1000 yuan for a secondhand computer .

Every month she spends one-third of her salary on books .

It took him a lot of money to buy her a new coat .=It took a lot of money for him to buy her a new coat .

He bought the bag for $20 .

14.But just this once. After all, this ball is very important.

不过, 就只这么一次。(要知道)这次舞会(毕竟)很重要啊!

after all 毕竟,终究,到底,含有“要知道……”,“别忘了……”

I know he hasn’t finished the work, but after all, he is very busy man.

They met with difficulties, but I hear that they’ve succeeded after all.

above all “最重要的是,首先”,说明事物的重要性。

first of all “首先,第一”,说明事物的排列顺序或优先程度。

at all 与 连用时意为“一点也不”,用于肯定句、疑问句或条件句中,意为“真地,确实”。

I’m interested in old coins but first of all I’m a stamp collector.

We mustn’t waste anything but above all, we mustn’t waste time.

Do you know him at all?

If you do it at all, do it well.要做就要做好。

I’m surprised that you came at all.你竟然来了, 我很吃惊。

15.She married a man with a lot of money.

她和一个很有钱的人结了婚。

marry 一词,意为“与 ( 某人 ) 结婚;娶;嫁”。注意它的用法及搭配 。

1)表示“和某人结婚”,不可受汉语影响用 with,而用 to ; 也可什么介词都不用,但应注意句型搭配。如:

He is going to marry Miss Alice . 他准备和爱丽斯小姐结婚。

2) marry vi . “结婚”,只表示婚姻状况,常有副词修饰。如:

The doctor married late in life . 这医生结婚很晚。

3)be ( get ) married to sb . “与……结婚”。表示已婚状态。如:

She was married to a foreigner . 她和外国人结婚。

Sharon has been married to Peter for 10 years .

Sharon和Peter结婚十年了。

4)marry vt . “把某人嫁给……”;“给某人娶……”; ( 指牧师、官员等 ) “为……主婚。如:

Her parents want to marry her to a rich businessman .

她的父母要把她嫁给一个富商。

Which priest is going to marry the couple of you ?

哪位牧师为你们俩主婚 ?

An old friend married them . 一位老朋友为他们证婚。

16. So I called on you and asked if I could borrow some jewellery.

所以我来拜访你,向你借些珠宝。

表示 “拜访”的短语或词有:call at , call on , drop in ( on/at ) , visit , pay a visit ( to ) 等。

call at 后接地点,表示到某处去拜访某人。如:

She asked him to call at Hilton Hotel to see her daughter.

她要他去希尔顿饭店看她的女儿。

call on 比较正式,后接人作宾语,指进行短暂的社交或公务关系的访问,有时也有 call upon。如:

After we moved into the new home, our neighbours came to call on us.

我们搬进新房子后,邻居来看望我们。

call back召唤某人回来,再访,回电话 call for去接某人,去拿某物,要求

call in 请来,下令收回 call up 打电话,使回忆

17. Well, after all these years we’ve at last paid off all our debts.

还好,经过这么多年,我们终于还清了债务。

pay off (优指冒风险的政策、做法)带来好结果,成功,行得通

The gamble paid off. 赌赢了。

pay sth off 全部偿还,还清;pay off one’s debts

pay sb off 付清某人工资予以解雇

After the strike, these workers were paid off.

pay back表示“偿还,偿付;报复” 如:

It's high time he paid you back the money he owes you .

 是他偿还借你钱的时候了。

pay for “付款,偿付”

How much did you pay for the recorder ? 这台录音机你买了多少钱?

Pay sth out (按时)为某事物付巨款

I had to pay out $200 to get my car repaired.我得花200美元修理汽车。

pay up 付清全部欠款

I’ll take you to court unless you pay up immediately.

除非马上还清欠款,否则我和你打官司。

18.It was worth five hundred francs at most.

它最多值五百法郎。

 be worth 值

1)be worth +money 有某种价值,值…钱

Our house is worth about $6000.我们的房子大约值6000美元

=We paid about $6000 for the house.

=The house cost us about $6000.

=It took us about $6000 to buy the house.

2)be worth doing /be worth sth值得做某事(be worth 后不能及to do 结构,be worth doing 本身表示被动含义)

It’s an idea that’s worth considering.这是个值得考虑的意见。

It’s not worth the effort/the trouble.不值得费那个事。

The plan is well worth a try.这个计划很值得一试。(注意:表示很值得、非常值得必须用well, 而不能用very)

It is worthwhile considering/to consider your suggestion. 你的建议值得考虑。

be worthy of sth 值得,配得上

of being done

to be done 值得做

Her achievements are worthy of the highest praise.

She said she was not worthy to accept the honour they had offered her.

Your suggestion is worthy of being/to be considered.

That worthy scholar could solve the problem.那位可敬的学者能解决这个问题。

Integrating skills

19.They also speak lines written like the dialogue in a play.

他们也念台词,就像戏剧中的对话一样。

lines台词,如:

Actors should have a very good memory otherwise he will forget his lines on the stage.

演员的记忆力要好,否则在舞台上会忘记台词。

speak vt.讲,说,讲出;显示,表达;用响声宣告

You’d better speak the truth. 你最好说实话。

In this passage the writer is speaking his own convictions.

在这段文章里,作者表达出自己的坚定信念。

The tower clock speaks night.

塔楼大钟的钟声报着夜晚的来临。

18.If we work together, we might come up with a very good story.

如果我们一起努力,我们会想出一个好故事。

come up with想出(计划、回答),提出;赶上

He couldn't come up with an answer.

他答不上来。

He couldn't come up with an appropriate answer just at the time.

那时他想不出一个合适的答案。

I’ll come up with you soon.我很快会赶上你的。

Come up 被提出

The question hasn’t come up yet.这个问题还没有被提出来。

19.On her way to her grandmother’s she meets an alien who takes her for a ride in his spaceship.

在去祖母家的路上,她遇到了一个外星人,他带她乘着自己的飞船去兜风。

take…for a ride 带人去兜风

I’m free this afternoon. Could you please take me for a ride in your car?

今天下午我有空。你能用你的车带我去兜一兜风吗?

[语法快餐]

情态动词(3)-----must, can/could, may/might

这些情态动词常用来表示推测。

1.must 用于肯定句,作“准是; 一定是;肯定是;想必是”解,对当前发生的情况作出非常肯定的推测。

must 用来表示有把握的肯定推测(否定推测用 can't,不能用 mustn't)其推测原因往往是根据某项客观存在的条件产生的。

The man talking to the students in the classroom must be a teacher.

正在教室里和同学们谈话的人一定是位老师。

2.can't 或 couldn't 作“不可能,想必不会”解,以对当前发生的事作出否定的推测,表示出惊异,怀疑的情绪。

He can't be waiting for us at the school gate since he is ill.

他不可能在校门口等我们,因为他病了。

3.might,may,could 用于肯定句,但它表示一种不太肯定的说法。译成“也许;可能”。这几个词同 must 相比,表示“无客观条件线索”的推测。

She might (may, could)be in the classroom.

也许她在教室里。

1 advantage 1) c.n.优势 ~ (over sb.) We’ve gained the ~ over our opponent.

This gives her certain ~s over other students in her class.

2) take ~ of sb. They took full ~ of the hotel’s facilities.

2 comfort 1)u.n.舒适,安慰We live in ~. He said a few words of ~ and left.

2)c.n.(sing)给于安慰的人.事Her children are a great ~ to her.

It’s a ~ to know that she is safe.

3)(pl.)使身体舒适.健康的事物 The hotel has all modern comforts.

4)v.安慰 ~ a dying man The child ran to its mother to be ~ed

5)(un)comfortable, (un)comfortably

3 name n. 1)名字

2)名誉,名声 It’s a shop with a good/bad name.

3)by/of the name of 称做,叫做 in the name of 代表,以名义

call sb. names 漫骂某人

Someone of/by the name of Henry wants to see you.

I greet you in the name of the President.

v. 1) 给取名,命名

Tasmania was named after its discoverer, A. J. Tasman.

2) 说出的名字

Can you name all the plants in this garden?

4 conduct v 1)领导,指导,带领 I asked the attendant to ~ him to the door.

A guide ~ed the visitors round the museum.

2)操纵,管理,经营,主持,指挥 ~ business, a meeting, a concert, an experiment

3)传导(热.电) Copper ~s electricity better than other materials do.

4)conductor, conductress 指挥,收票员,乘务员,导体

5 work 1) 工作

2)(机器)运转

This machine works by electricity.

My watch doesn’t work any longer.

3) 奏效,起作用

The medicine does work well. I’m feeling better now.

4) work at/on

They have worked at the subject for several years.

He has been working on a new novel for over a year.

5) work out

He hasn’t worked out the cost of the trip.

Can you work out the maths problem?

We’re going to work out a new plan.

6 charge

1)要价The fruit seller charged me too much money.

He charged me two yuan for repairing the bicycle.

How much do you charge for this cup of coffee?

2)(常与with连用)控告

He was charged with stealing a car.

Those young men were charged by the police with causing a disturbance in the neighbourhood.

3) 猛冲;攻击;向前冲

Charge!

冲锋!

The boy charged into the room.

男孩冲进屋里。

Suddenly the wild animal charged at us.

突然那头野兽朝我们冲过来。

4) 充电 ~ a battery

5) in ~ of, in the ~ of, take charge, free of charge

7 prove

1)证明,证实

He has proved his courage in battle.

Facts have proved that the creative power of the people knows no limits.

事实证明人民的创造力是无穷的。

He proved himself to be a better driver than the world’s champion.

Facts proved me right.

2)原来是

My advice proved to be wrong.

The task ~ed more difficult than we’d thought.

The article has proved most useful.

He proved (to be) a doctor.

3) proof(s)

8 tear

1) v(tore, torn)撕扯;撕裂;撕破;撕毁

to tear up the letter

to tear a piece of paper in two a torn handkerchief

to tear a page out of a book, a notice down from a wall, the leaves off a tree.

2) tear sb. from sb.(sth.)强行使某人离开

The child was torn from its mother’s arms.

3) vi This cloth tears easily.

Don’t pull the pages so hard or they will tear.

9 sharp

1)锐利的, 锋利的,尖的

a sharp knife

a needle with a sharp point

2)思维敏捷的;目光敏锐的; 听觉灵敏的

sharp eyes/ears a sharp sense of smell

It was very sharp of you to notice that detail straight away.

The famous writer is still sharp in thought though he is ninety-two.

3) 清晰的;明显的;清楚的

a sharp outline

The TV picture isn’t very sharp.

4) 突然的;急剧的;强烈的

a sharp turn to the left

Recently there has been a sharp drop in prices.

5) (声音)尖锐的:

a sharp whistle. He let out a sharp cry of pain.

10 sense

n.1) c.n.感觉;知觉;感知

He has a good sense of smell/taste/touch/hearing/sight.

A sense of humour/duty/shame is a great asset for a person. (喻)

幽默感是一个人的宝贵资产。

2) c.n.意义

This is a word with several senses.

3) u.n.道理,目的

What’s the sense of doing that? 为什么要做那件事?

There’s no sense in going alone. 一个人去没有好处。

4) in a sense 在某种意义上

What you said is true in a sense.

5) make sense 有意义,有道理,讲得通;是明智的,是合情理的

What you say makes no sense.

It doesn’t make sense to buy that expensive coat.

v.意识到,感觉到

Although she didn’t day anything, I sensed that she didn’t like the idea.

We can sense their sorrow.

11 doubt

1)v

Do you ~ my word?

I don’t doubt that he will come.

I doubt whether he will come.

2)n.

There is no room for doubt.

There’s some doubt about his suitability for the job.

I have doubts about her honesty.

She had her doubts (as to) whether he would come.

I have no doubt that you will succeed.

3)no doubt无疑地,很可能

No doubt he means to help, but in fact he just gets in the way.

12 view

1) u.n.观看,视野,眼界

The lake came into view. We came in view of the lake as we turned the corner,

The sun disappeared from view behind a cloud. A cloud hid the sun from view.

She was soon lost from view among the crowd.

2) c.n.自然风景,风景画

Let’s enjoy the beautiful views from the top of the mountain.

ten different views of London 伦敦十景

This is a view of Paris, done in oil.

3)c.n.(esp. pl) 意见,态度,观点,想法

We hold the same views about/on this problem as you.

He didn’t express his view at the meeting.

4) in one’s view依…之见, in view of 鉴于,由于,考虑到

In view of the weather , we will put off the outing.

Warming up

1.Look at the map of China and the names of countries, islands and seas beyond China. What are the positions of the different places and waters in relation to China?

beyond China 除中国外 beyond 的用法如下:

1)除了;除…以外

I didn’t notice anything beyond his rather strange accents.

除了他那颇为古怪的口音以外,我没注意到别的。

2)越出…范围;超越;为…所不能及

The bicycle is beyond repair.

这辆自行车已不能修理了。

After 25 years the town center has changed beyond recognition.

25年后,市中心已变得认不出来了。

The news is beyond belief.

这一消息令人难以置信。

Her skill as a musician is beyond praise.

这位音乐家的技巧令人赞叹不已。

The result is beyond his hopes.

这一结果令他始料未及。

3)迟于、超过(某一时间)

It won’t go on beyond the midnight.

这不会持续到午夜以后。

4)在…的远处,向…的远处

The house is beyond the bridge.

房屋在桥的那一边。

相关短语:be beyond sb.使某人难以想象、理解、估计

It’s beyond me why she wants to marry Jim.

How people design computer games is beyond me.

in (with )relation to China 关于中国

relation 的用法如下:

1)(抽象)关系(=relationship)(不可数)

the relation between cause and effect因果关系

in(with)relation to that affair关于那件事

an answer with no relation to the question与问题无关的答复

bear no relation to something同某事无关

2)(具体)关系(常用复数);利害关系;国际关系

the foreign relations of a country国家的对外关系

have business relations with a person同某人有商业来往

3)亲属;亲戚(可数)(=relative)

a poor relation 穷亲戚

a close/near/distant relation of mine我的一个近亲、远亲

2 The East China Sea lies to the east of Zhejiang Province.

China lies/is in the east of Asia.(在范围之内)

Canada lies/is on the north of America.(接壤)

Japan lies /is to the east of China.(不接壤、在范围之外)

East /south/west/north of A lies/is B A的东南西北有一个B

North of the school lie/are two shops.

South of the toilet lies/is a post office.

N---Adj N---Adj

East-eastern west-western-westerner(N)

north-northern south-southern

northeast-northeastern southwest-southwestern

northwest-northwestern southeast-southeastern

Speaking

1.Where is your great-grandfather on your father’s side from?

On your father’s side 意思是“父系的、父亲的”

My aunt on my mother’s side我的姨妈

A cousin on my father’s side 父系的表亲

Reading

1.New Zealand is an island that lies off the eastern coast of Australia.

注意:on the coast 与off the coast 两者的意思都是“靠近岸边”,但前者表示“在岸上”;后者表示“在海上”。

1)off 意为“离、距”

The town is five miles off.这里离城五英里。

They were sailing two miles off shore.他们在离岸两英里的海上航行。

The holidays are not far off.离假期不远了。

May Day is only a week off.离“五一”节只有一星期了。

2)off 还可解释为“靠近

The restaurant is just off the main road.这家饭店就在主干道旁边。

2.It is made up of two large islands…

be made up of…由…组成, 其主动形式为 “ make up”

This class is made up of 65 students.

65 students make up this class.

make up 的其他意思

Make up a story/a dialogue(=create a dialogue)编故事、编对话

Make up a list造表,列表

She likes making up before leaving.在走之前,她总是化一下妆。

Make up (for)the loss弥补损失

Shake hands and make it up握手言归于好。

Make up one’s mind下定决心

Make up a bundle of old clothes for the flood victims为水灾受难者整理出一包旧衣服

3.New Zealand is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the north and east…

Vt surround …with/by…

He woke up and found himself surrounded by several children.他醒来发现自己身边围着几个孩子。

They have surrounded the town with troops.他们出动军队包围了该城。

The house is surrounded by/with a wall.这所房子周围有一道围墙。

N a fireplace with a tiled surround 周围镶有瓷砖的壁炉

Adj York and the surrounding country 约克城及其近郊

N(pl) surroundings

Live in comfortable surroundings.生活在舒适的环境里。]

The hospital is in beautiful surroundings.这所医院环境优美。

4.It rains quite a lot.=It rains much.=It rains a great deal

5.More than 120 years later, Captain James Cook took possession of the islands in 1769 and from that time British people started to settle in New Zealand.

Possession

1) 所有、拥有、占有(不可数)

get possession of sth 取得某物

The players fought for possession of the ball. 队员们争取对求得控制。

2)所有物、占有物、财产(可数)

my personal possessions我个人的财产

a man of great possessions 富翁

3)领地、属地、殖民地

Most of Britain’s possessions overseas are now independent countries.

大不列颠以前的许多殖民地现在已成为独立国家了

相关词组:

take possession of sth.=占有、成为所有者

You can’t take possession of the house until all the papers are signed.不到所有证件签好字,你不能搬到那所房子里住。

take possession of sth=come into possession of sth=enter into possession of sth占有某物

come into possession of sth占有某物

On her father’s death, she came into possession of a vast fortune.

他在父亲死后继承大量财产。

come into sb’s possession被某人占有

in possession of sth 占有控制

in the possession of sb=in sb’s possession (某物)被某人占有

Their opponents were in possession of the ball for most of the match.

他们的对手在比赛的大部分时间里控制着球。

Fight for /win/get possession of the ball.争球

The possession of a passport is essential for foreign travel.

去国外旅行需持有护照。

V possess 拥有,占有,具有(品质、才能等),控制,支配

He possesses 2 cars.他有两辆车。

Does he possess the necessary patience to do the job well?

他有做好这项工作必备的耐心吗?

She was possessed by jealousy.她妒火中烧。

Adj possessive

The child was very possessive with his toys.这个孩子把玩具把得紧紧的。(不与他人分享)

Possessive parents 让子女唯命是从的父母

settle vi , vt

1)在某国等殖民 ;安定、定居、安家落户

The Dutch settled in South Africa.

荷兰人在非洲殖民。

Settle in New York在纽约定居

After years of travel, we decided to settle here.我们旅行多年后,决定再次定居。

Settle in London/in Canada/in the country/near the coast在伦敦、加拿大、乡村、沿海安家

2)停息、停留

The bird settled on a branch.那只鸟落在树枝上了。

The dust has settled on everything.到处都是积尘。

The cold has settled on my chest.我患感冒已引起我胸部不适(咳)

3)settle sb/sth使…平静、镇静或放松

This pill will help to settle your nerves.你吃了这片药神经就不那么紧张了。

He had been quite anxious, but I managed to settle his mind.

他原来很着急,我总算把他的情绪稳定下来了。

Wait until all the excitement has settled.等到激动情绪平静下来再说。

4)解决、调停

settle a question

Nothing is settled yet.什么也没定下来。

You should settle your affairs before you leave.你应该把你的事处理好再走。

5)整理、料理

settle a room 整理房间

6) settle down

Wait until the children settle down before you start the lesson.等学生都静下心来再开始上课。

After all the excitement things have begun to settle down again.

经过这些激烈事情后,一切又都平静下来了。

The chairman tried to settle the audience down.

主席尽力让听众静下来。

She settled down in an armchair to read her book.

他舒服地坐在沙发上看书。

7)settle (down)to sth安下心来

The constant interruptions stopped me from settling (down)to my work.

我受到不断干扰,无法定下心来工作。

Adj settled 不变的 lead a more settled life 过着安定些的生活live(lead)a happy/hard/quite/miserable/comfortable/unhealthy life

N: settlement settler殖民者,定居者

6.Around 1421, Chinese sailors discovered the islands on one of their voyages around the world.

n. make a voyage across Atlantic 作横越大西洋的航行

go on a voyage from A to B 由A航行前往B

on the outward/homeward voyage 在出航途/返航途中

v. voyage across the Indian Ocean作穿越印度洋的航行

voyage through space 航天飞行

7.By 1840 about 2000 Europeans, mainly British, had come to settle in New Zealand and the Maori signed an agreement with these settlers.

Sign an agreement签约 break an agreement 破坏、不遵守协议

By agreement 依约、同意 come to /reach/arrive at/make an agreement with sb 与某人达成协议

In agreement with按照,与…一致,符合

I’m quite in agreement with what you say.=I quite agree with what you say.我十分同意你所说的话。

8.What do the words in bold refer to ?

be in bold(type)粗体字

bold plans大胆的计划

a bold scheme to rebuild the city center重建城市中心的大胆计划

the bold outline of a mountain against the sky天空衬托出山的清楚轮廓

(as) bold as brass厚颜无耻

She came in, bold as brass, and asked me to lend him $50.

refer to :

1)提及;谈到;指

Don’t refer to that again.不要再提这件事了。

2)参考、参照;查阅

Refer to a dictionary about it.关于这一点查查字典吧。

The speaker often referred to his notes.演讲者说话时常常要看稿子。

3)有关、关系到

What I have to say refer to all of you.我要说的事和你们大家都有关。

Language study

1.They are going to invite me to dinner…

Invite sb to dinner/a palace ball/a concert/a party

2.It is only a matter of time before they will discover that John has left.

A matter of… …的问题

A matter of time/money/life and death 时间/金钱/生死攸关的问题

It’s only a matter of time whether they can succeed.

Integrating skills

1. New Zealand has a population of about 3.8 million people, of which about fourteen percent are Maori.新西兰人口大约有三百八十万,其中约百分之十四是毛利人。

有关population

What’s the population of China?中国的人口有多少?

China has a population of a thousand million.=It’s a thousand million.中国有十亿人口。

China has the largest population in the world. 世界上中国的人口最多。

The population of Canada is small.加拿大人口少。

The population of Jiangsu province is large.江苏省的人口多。

The population of developed countries are mostly workers.

发达国家的人多半是工人。

2.New Zealand wine is of hign quality….

1)be of +n.(表种类、年龄、颜色、形状、价格等)名词前常用a(n),the same, different等修饰

be of …age( color, shape, type, size, etc.)

Those cars are of a dark grey. 这些小汽车都是深灰色。

The two rooms are of a size (of the same size).这两个房间一样大。

The two computers are of the same type.这两台电脑是同一类型的。

We are of the same age.我们年龄相同。

They were both of middle height.他们两人都是中等个儿。

2)be of +抽象名词==be+名词相对应的形容词

What you learned from the report is of importance.

=is important.

His advice is of great value to me.=His advice is very valuable to me.

His friends are of help to him.=His friends are helpful to him.

English is of great use.=English is very useful.

It was of no use to him.=It was useless to him.

3. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer…有些农场主已转向了养鹿…

1)turn to 意为“转向”

He turned to the study of medicine.他转向学医了。

After she left the university, she became a teacher, but later turned to journalism.大学毕业后,他先当了老师,但后来转行,干新闻工作了。

2)求助于

He has nobody she can turn to.他求助无门。

He is the person to whom people can turn in difficult times.他是人们在困难时可以求助的人。

The child turned to his mother for comfort.那孩子向母亲寻求安慰。

The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink.他情绪越低越是借酒浇愁。

3)向;朝向;转弯

The road turned to the left.这条路向左拐弯。

4)手工作,开始行动

It’s time we turned to.该是我们着手工作的时候了。

5)翻到

Please turn to Page 20.请翻到第二十页。

知识点:

在英语学习中,同学们会逐渐发现随着学习的不断深入,能够充当主语的成分也越来越多,除了常见的名词、代词,还有非谓语、句子等等,那么如何使这些主语和它的谓语动词保持性、数上的一致就成了我们英语学习中的一个重要课题,也是历来高考拟题关注的热点。现总结主谓一致的几点原则如下:

  <一>就近原则

  1. 由并列结构或连词(either…or, neither…nor,not…but, not only…but also, or等)连接的并列主语,谓语动词与靠近的那个名词或代词保持一致。

  例句:Neither his parents nor Tom is at home. Tom和他的父母都不在家。

  Note:“either…or, neither…nor, or”连接的两个主语若是一单一复,最好将复数主词放在后面而接复数动词。

  2. 在倒装句和there be句型中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语保持一致。

  例句:There is a book and some pens on the desk. 桌子上有一本书和几支钢笔。

  There comes the bus. 汽车来了。

  3. 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语,其谓语动词应与它所指代的先行词保持一致。

  例句:I know the man who is talking to my father.我认识那个正在和我父亲谈话的人。

  4. 在强调句中,连接代词又在句中作主语,这时它应与被强调的主语保持一致。

  例句:It is Mary’s brother who was injured in the car accident. 是Mary的哥哥在车祸中受伤了。

  二>意义一致原则

  1. 当主语与谓语动词之间插入along with,with,as well as,together with, no less than,besides,except, but, including等短语时,谓语动词不受这些插入语的干扰,依然和主语保持一致。

  例句:I, along with my sister, am going to Shanghai next month. 我,还有我姐姐,打算下个月去上海。

  2. 英语中有一类单、复数同型的词(people,means,sheep,deer,fish等),其单、复数取决于它在句中的含义。

  例句:All of the people in the country have been prepared for the great reformation.这个国家的人都已经为大变革做好了准备。

  3. 多数情况下,由“what”引导的名词性从句作主语时,其后的谓语动词通常用单数形式。

  例句:What I want to say is just “ Take care!”.我只想说:“多保重!”

  4. 当主语与all, none, any,some等不定代词、形容词连用时,应根据具体句意,来决定其后的谓语动词的单复数。

  例句:All I know about this company is what he told me yesterday.我对这家公司的了解都是昨天完他告诉我的。

  5. “…+ (of) +名词”结构描述数量时,如果“of”后的名词为单数(不可数名词),则谓语动词用单数,如果名词为复数,则谓语动词用复数。

  例句:Most of the water here is clean.大部分的水是干净的。

  80% cotton has been sent to America.80%的棉花已经被送往美国。

  Half of the apples are red.有一半儿的苹果是红的。

  6. 词组“a number of, a great/good many, a group of +可数名词复数”的结构作主语时,谓语动词应用复数;如果冠词a变为the,则谓语动词用单数。

  例句: A number of ancient buildings are destroyed in the war.许多的古代建筑在战争中被毁。

  The number of the visitors has decreased this year. 游客的数量今年减少了。

  7. 英语的集体名词(committee, crowd, family, public, group, party, team, class, club, company, union等词),指代“整体”时为单数;指代“其中的各成员”则为复数。

  例句:My family was very poor when I was a little girl.当我还是一个小女孩儿的时候,我家很穷。

  My family are all looking forward for your coming. 我的家人都在期待着你的到来

三>整体原则

  1. 从句、不定式、动名词等作主语时谓语动词一律视作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:When to leave has not been decided.什么时候离开还没有定下来。

  Go shopping on Sunday is one of his habits.周日购物是他的一个习惯。

  Note:如果主语是两个(或两个以上)的名词性从句,谓语动词常用复数。

  例句:What he said and what he did were always different.他所说的和他所做的总是不一样。

  2. 如果两个以上的名词组成一个整体概念作主语时,谓语动词须用单数。

  例句: The novelist and poet is going to Europe next year.这位小说家兼诗人打算明年去欧洲。

  The novelist and the poet are going to Europe next year.小说家和诗人都打算明年去欧洲。

  分析:a)句中小说家和诗人the novelist and poet为同一个人,故谓语动词用单数;而b)句中有两个人,一个是小说家the novelist,另一个是诗人the poet。

  3. 专用名词,如:书名、剧名、报刊名、国家(组织)名等,通常作单数用。

  例句:The United States was found it 1776.美国成立于1776年。

  4. 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:10 minutes is enough.十分钟足够了。

  5.加减乘除等数学运算谓语动词通常用单数。

  例句:2 times 3 makes 6. 二乘三等于六。

<四>个体原则

  1. and连结的两个或多个主语前如果有each, every, no等修饰语时(后面的一个有时也可省略),后面的谓语动词用单数形式。

  例句:Every man and every woman is busy at working.每个人都在忙着工作。

  2. 英语句中的each, either, neither等词,既可作代词充当主语,又可作形容词修饰主语,这时的谓语动词一律用单数。

  例句:Neither of us has been abroad. 我们谁都没出过国。

  3. 由some, any every, no构成的复合词(somebody,nobody,everything,anything等)作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:Somebody is waiting for you at the school gate.有人在学校门口等你。

  4. many a / more than one + 单数名词,一般接单数谓语动词。

  例句:Many a man does not understand Einstein’s relativity.许多人不明白爱因斯坦的相对论。

  5. “one and a half + 复数名词”作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。

  例句:One and a half hours has passed. 一个半小时过去了。

  6. 成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses, scissors, shoes,  trousers,pants,gloves,stockings等)作主语时,通常谓语动词用复数,但如果前面有a /the pair of;a /the suit of等词语时,则谓语动词要用单数。

  例句:A pair of scissors is useful tool for a dressmaker.剪刀是裁缝的重要工具。

  7. 以“-s”结尾的“复数”名词(例如;一些学科名词mathematics, physics, politics等),或以“-s”结尾的地点名词、人名等词后面的谓语动词通常用单数。

  例句:Mathematics is my favorite subject.数学是我最喜欢的科目。

New words and expressions

1. avoid vt. 避免,躲避; 预防,防止

avoid sth / avoid doing sth

You can avoid danger by being careful.

I took the other direction so as to avoid meeting her.

He told a lie in order to avoid being punished.

I just avoided running over the cat. 我差点儿轧着猫。

Try to avoid accidents. 尽量防止发生事故。

2. contact

n.接触,联系(contact with )

The two substances are now in contact with each other, and a chemical reaction is occurring.

Pupils must be brought into contact with new ideas.

The troops came into contact with the enemy.

We are out of contact with our friends. / be in contact with sb.

He lost contact with his son.

keep in contact with sb. / get in contact with sb.

make contact with 与某人交谈会晤或取得联系

I finally made contact with her in Paris.

vt. 联系,与来往

Where can I contact you tomorrow?

3. frown

vi. 1) frown at 皱眉,蹙额

What’s wrong? Why are you frowning?

Peter frowned at the noise coming from the boys’ bedroom.

2) frown on/upon sth. 不赞成,不许可,不同意

My parents always frown on late nights out. 不赞成深夜外出。

n. She looked up from her exam paper with a worried frown.

I noticed a slight frown of disapproval on his face.

4. lean v. (leant, leaned)

1) 倾斜,弯曲,屈身

lean forward, lean back

lean out of the window, back in one’s chair, over to one side.

2) lean against/upon/on sth. 依靠在某物上

The ladder is leaning against the wall.

The old man leant upon/on his stick.

3) lean sth. against/on sth.使某物靠在另一物上

The workmen leant their shovels against the fence and went to lunch.

4) lean on/upon for sth.依靠某人(某事物)=depend on

Young people lean on old people for guidance/advice/support.

5. ahead (时间、空间)在前,向前

He ran ahead. Walk straight ahead.

The way ahead is broken. Do you know the tall man ahead?

ahead of 1)(时间、空间)更前、更早

London is about five hours ahead of New York.

Ahead of us lay ten days of intensive training.

2) 处于领先地位,领先

She was always well ahead of the rest of the class.

His ideas were ahead of his time

ahead of time/schedule 提前

He finished the work ahead of time.(=in advance; beforehand;)

---- Would you mind my opening the door?

----No, go ahead.

----Let’s practise speaking in English ?

----Good idea. Go ahead.

6. manage vt/vi.

1) 负责,管理,经营,

manage a shop, business, factory

2) 控制,驾御

manage a naughty boy ; manage a difficult horse.

He’s good at managing his money.

3) 设法完成 manage to do sth

In spite of these difficulty, he managed to finish the task.

I can’t borrow the money so I’ll have to manage without.应付(将就)

4) 与can, could, be able to连用,达到,做成

I haven’t been learning French for long, so I can only manage a few words.

I can’t manage another piece of cake.

Despite his disappointment, he managed a smile. 他尽管很失望,还是强颜一笑。

7. vary

1) vi. 不同(vary in sth) 变化(vary with… , vary from… to…)

Prices vary with the seasons.

Her mood varies from optimism to extreme depression. 她的情绪有乐观一变而为极度消沉。Customs vary from country to country.

Opinions vary on this point.

The results of the experiment varied wildly.

These fish vary in weight from 3 jin to 5 jin.

2) 改变,使多样化

You must vary your working pace/ the method of study/ the programme..

3) adj. various n. variety

for various reasons /for a variety of reasons / for varieties of reasons

8. crazy adj.疯狂的,狂热的

He is crazy.

The noise is driving me The noise is making me go crazy.

You must be crazy to go walking in such terrible weather.

The kids went crazy when the film star appeared.

be crazy about 狂热,热衷

I am crazy about maths. She’s crazy about him.

like crazy 极度,非常=very much

work/talk/run like crazy 拼命工作/讲话/跑

9. part 分开,分离 part (from sb); part sb from sb

The police parted the crowd.

The children were parted from their parents.

She has parted from her husband.

The crowd parted to let them through.

It is 3 years since they parted.

The clouds parted and the sun shone through.云开日出

part with sth. 放弃或出让某物=give away

Although he is poor, he refused to part with his collected stamps.

Take/play an active part in sth. 积极参加某事

play a major /important/significant part in sth 在某方面起重大作用

10. firm adj.

1) 坚实的,坚硬的

This wet ground id not firm enough to walk on.

firm soil坚硬的土壤 firm flesh/muscles 结实的肌肉

2) 牢固的,稳固的,坚固的

This building has a firm ground.

A firm foundation坚固的基础

3) 稳定而有力的 a firm handshake

Mother kept a firm hold on her son's hands as he said goodbye to her abroad.

"儿子向母亲告别到国外去时,母亲紧紧地拉住他的双手。"

4)坚定的,不易改变的

We have a firm belief in this fact.

He has made a firm decision.

be firm with 对坚决,坚定

Parents should be firm with their parents.严格要求孩子

adv. firmly 坚固地,稳固地

The belt was firmly fixed to the astronaut when he floated in space.

11. bow v.

1) 鞠躬,点头

The actors and actresses bowed as the audience applauded.

We all bowed to the Queen.

2) 压弯

The branches was bowed down by the snow on them.

His back was bowed with age.

3) bow sb. in/out弯腰迎入/送出

4) bow to sth. 顺从,接受某事物

bow to sb’s experience

5) n. He left with a bow.

Cupid’s bow 丘比特之剑

12 get through

1) 用完,消耗掉

She gets through thirty cigarettes a day.

We get through a lot of money while we were on holiday.

2) 做完,完成

Let’s start. There’s a lot of work to get through today.

I’ve got through a lot of letters today.

As soon as I get through with my work, I’ll join you.

3) 及格,通过

get through the exams/the driving test

Tom failed, but his sister got through.

She got all her pupils through French A level.

4) 使正式通过或被采纳

Do you think the Bill will get through the Parliament?

5) 接通电话和…联系

I tried ringing you several times yesterday, but I couldn’t get through to you.

6) 度过 get through difficult situation

Her grandma was in great danger. The doctor said that she couldn’t get through the night.

13 bend(bent, bent) v.

1) 弯曲,弯腰

It’s hard to bend a iron bar.

She bent down and picked it up.

2) be bent on (doing)sth.决心采取(某行动),专心致志于(做)某事

She is bent on pleasure.一心要享乐

He is bent on winning at all costs.不惜一切去争取胜利

He bent his mind to the job. 他专心与工作。

bend to sb’s will 顺从某人的意志

14. detail

1). n细节,详情

He refused to go into details (详细叙述)about his plans.

He refused to explain/ describe it in detail (详细地)。

2)vt.详述,细说

I detailed our plans to her.

3) adj. detailed 详细的,详尽的 detailed information/description

15 focus (pl. focuses, foci)

n. 1) (光,声等的中心点,源)

2)焦点,焦距

The focus on my camera isn’t working properly.

2) 活动的中心,感兴趣所在

Her beauty makes her the focus of attention.

In tonight’s programme our focus is on Germany.

v. focus (sth) on sth 调整焦点于,(注意力,精神)集中于

Focus your camera on the trees.

I am too tired, I can’t focus on anything today.

Please focus your attention/mind on the following problems.

16 occur vi. (occurrence n.)

1) 发生 happen

The accident occurred at five o'clock.

2) 存在 exist; be found

Such plants don't occur here.

这种植物不能在这里生存。

3)occur to sb 想起;想到

An idea occurred to me.

Did it ever occur to you that this will probably cause an accident?

It occurred to me that I hadn’t finished my homework.

Warming up /listening/speaking

1. keep +宾语 +宾补

eg. The coat will keep you warm.

Illness kept him in bed for a week.

I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a long time.

They kept their marriage a secret.

The heavy rain kept us from going abroad.

2. match ---with---

1) 使---和---相配

2) 使---和---竞争或较量

I’m ready to match my strength against yours .

Match your skill against the experts in this quiz.

match vt/vi. 相配,相匹敌,相竞争

The curtains won’t match the carpets.

The curtains and the carpets match perfectly.

The two pieces of furniture don’t match.

No one can match her at chess.

A well-matched couple 很匹配的一对

3. To tell (you ) the truth( 老实说), I don’t agree with you.

4. disagree with sb. (on/about sth. ) 与某人有分歧,不同意

disagree with sb. /what sb says /sb’s words

The food/climate disagreed with me.

The food /climate doesn’t agree with me.

Agree to do sth

Agree to sth. ( plan, suggestion, proposal, arrangement, idea, etc.)

Agree on sth. ( price, date,etc.)

Agree with sb/what sb says/ sb’s words

Sign an agreement with sb.

Come to /arrive at /reach/ make an agreement

In agreement with ---

Reading

1. express one’s thoughts / emotion/ opinion 表达某人的思想,情感,观点

express one’s satisfaction with---- 对----表示满意

The teacher expressed his satisfaction with the result for the experiment.

2. communicate with----与---进行交流

He is difficult to communicate with.

They communicate with each other by radio/telephone.

communicate sth. (to sb.) 传播,传送

He communicated his intension to me. 他把他的意向告诉了我。

Please communicate the news to our friends.

Communicate a disease 传播疾病

be in communication with sb.

3. look directly into sb’s eyes 直视对方的眼睛

look into sth. 调查或观察某事 look into the case/problem

directly adv. 1) 径直地,直接地,坦率地,直爽地,

He looked directly at us .

She speaks very directly to people.

2)立即,马上

Come in directly.

3) conj. 一----就----=as soon as

I went home directly I had finished work.

direct adv. 径直地,中途不停地; 亲自地,直接地

The train goes there direct.

I prefer to deal with him direct. 我还是直接跟他打交道为好。

4. around the world=all over the world=throughout the world 全世界,世界各地

5. as to sth. ; as regards sth. 至于某事物,提到某事物

As to what clothes you should wear, there are no special rules.

6. greet vt. 欢迎,迎接,致意,问候, greet sb with sth

He greeted me in the street with a friendly wave of the hand.

She greeted her guests politely at the door.

His speech was greeted with great cheers and applause.

greeting n. 招呼,问候,欢迎

send greetings 致以问候 a greetings card 贺卡

7. While there are many different interpretations of our body language, some gestures seem to be universal . 尽管对身势语有许多不同的解释,有些手势好象是全球通用的。

While conj. 1)尽管,虽然,=although

While I admit that there are problems, I don’t agree that they cannot be solved.

尽管我承认有问题存在,但我不同意说这些问题不能解决。

While I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you.

While he tried his best, he failed in the experiment.

3) 当----的时候, 在----期间

He fell asleep while he was doing his homework .

Strike while the iron is hot.

4) 与----同时

While mary was writing a letter, the children were playing outside.

He listens to the radio while driving to work.

5) 然而(表示对比或相反)

My brother is very tall while I am so short.

She thought I was talking about her daughter, while, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

8. feel down or lonely 情绪低落,闷闷不乐,感到孤独,

down adj. 到楼下;病倒;倒下;沮丧;首次付款的;

All right, I’ll be down immediately.

be/go down with sth 有病,得病

He is down with a cold.

Several trees are down.

She felt down/lonely about her leaving.

Pay me $500 as a down payment 先付给我500美圆定钱。

9. have a lot/ much/something/a great deal/nothing/little/not much in common with ---

和----有很多/有一些/没有/很少/不多共同之处

in common with ---- 和----一样

Grammar -----Ving 形式

1. 作主语

2. 作宾语

3. 作表语

4. 作定语

高二英语第五单元

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